Health Problems With Whey & Dairy Allergies and intolerances
However, hydrolyzed whey is also bitter tasting, so care needs to be taken in terms of masking that flavor. Dietary supplementation with pressurized whey in patients with cystic fibrosis. It was worth it, this stuff is downright phenomenal. A process line for the production of drier whey protein concentrate using UF is shown in Figure Proteins can also bind to, or even be integrated into, cell membranes.
Why are other ‘best of’ lists unhelpful?
The processed whey proteins are more hydrophilic than casein. There are currently a few options available for the further processing of UF permeate from whey or skim milk as shown below. Only milk UF permeate and lactose can be used for the standardization of protein in milk powders. The processes for the manufacture of lactose and permeate powder are explained below in Fig.
Lactose is the main constituent of whey. There are two basic methods of recovery, depending on the raw material:. Both methods produce a mother-lye, molasses, which can be dried and used as fodder. The feed value can be increased considerably if the molasses is desalinated and if high-quality proteins are added.
Several of these factors are mutually related to each other, for example degree of saturation and viscosity. The tanks have cooling jackets and equipment for control of the cooling temperature. They are also fitted with special agitators. After crystallization, the slurry proceeds to decanter centrifuges and a sieve centrifuge 3 for separation of the crystals, which are dried 4 to a powder. Following grinding typically in a hammer mill and sifting, the lactose is packed 5.
For efficient and simple separation of lactose crystals from the mother liquor, crystallization must be arranged so that the crystals exceed 0. The degree of crystallization is determined in principle by the quantity of b-lactose converted to the desired a-lactose form, and the cooling of the concentrate must therefore be carefully controlled and optimized. Various types of centrifuges can be used for harvesting lactose crystals. One is the horizontal decanter centrifuge Figure Two machines are installed in series.
The lactose from the first is reprocessed in the second for more efficient separation. During separation, impurities are washed from the lactose so that a high degree of purity is obtained. The lactose is dried after separation to a residual moisture content of 0. The drying time must also be taken into consideration. During quick drying, a thin layer of amorphous shapeless, non-crystalline lactose tends to form on the a-hydrate crystal, and this may later result in formation of lumps.
Drying usually takes place in a fluidized bed drier. The crystals are normally ground to a powder immediately after drying and are then packed. A higher degree of purity or very white lactose is required for some applications e. The refining of lactose can also improve the yield of a lactose process. After filtration, the solution is recrystallized and centrifuged before drying, milling and packing. This is an expensive process where double execution of equipment is required for continuous processing, and where active carbon and filter adjuvant are sent directly to waste.
More recently, alternative processes involving continuous decalcification and riboflavin removal source of the yellow colour in lactose using regenerable activated carbon columns produce refined white lactose much more economically.
These processes are even capable of pharmaceutical-grade lactose with the addition of additional decanting and washing. An alternative to making lactose from UF permeate is to convert into permeate powder as shown by the process depicted in Figure The product Permeate powder has seen high growth in applications within animal feed and food applications when high-purity lactose is not required and the ash level in permeate is acceptable.
Functional properties such as free flowing non-caking behaviour, colour and flavour over a long shelf life are very important for permeate powder, and production conditions must be carefully selected to achieve these.
Product is then stored 5 for a minimum of 6h to allow for final crystallisation and then packed in 25 kg bags or lorry. High temperatures required to facilitate the handling of the highly viscous permeate concentrates should be chosen carefully because they can degrade product quality, particularly colour and flavour. Partially demineralized whey concentrate can, for instance, be used in the manufacture of ice-cream and bakery products or even in quarg, whereas highly demineralized whey concentrate or powder can be utilized in formulas for infants and, of course, in a very wide group of other products.
Demineralization involves removal of inorganic salts, together with some reduction in the content of organic ions, such as lactates and citrates. This type of filtration is called nanofiltration NF. By using a specially designed 'leaky' RO membrane, small particles like certain monovalent ions, e. This membrane process is known by various names such as ultraosmosis, 'leaky' RO and nanofiltration NF.
Because of their greater compactness, spiral-wound membranes are most often used in new installations. For further information about this type of membrane, see Chapter 6. Examples of permeation rates of normal sweet whey constituents during nanofiltration are given in Table The reason for this difference in elimination of ions is the need of maintaining an electrochemical balance between negative and positive ions.
Installation of NF equipment in whey processing can be considered in the following situations:. Electrodialysis is defined as the transport of ions through non-selective semi-permeable membranes under the driving force of a direct current DC and an applied potential. The membranes used have both anion and cation exchange functions, making the electrodialysis process capable of reducing the mineral content of a process liquid, e.
The two electrodes at each end of the cell stack have separate rinse channels as shown in Figure For whey treatment, the whey feed and acidified brine pass through alternate cells in the stack, whose construction can be likened to that of a plate heat exchanger or plate sheet ultrafiltration module.
It consists of a number of compartments separated by alternate cation and anion exchange membranes which are spaced about 1 mm or less apart. The end compartments contain electrodes. There can be as many as cell pairs between each pair of electrodes. Alternate cells in the electrodialysis stack act as concentration and dilution cells respectively. When direct current DC is applied across the cells, cations attempt to migrate to the cathode and anions to the anode, as shown in Figure However, completely free migration is not possible, because the membranes act as barriers to ions of identical charge.
Anions can pass through an anion membrane, but are stopped by a cation membrane. Conversely, cations can pass through a cation membrane but not an anion membrane. The net result is depletion of ions in the whey dilution cells. The whey is thus demineralized, to an extent determined by the ash content of the whey, residence time in the stack, current density and flow viscosity. The electrodialysis plant can be run either continuously or in batches. This is indicated by the conductivity of the process liquid.
The whey concentrate should be clarified before it enters the electrodialysis unit. The process liquid heats up during the process, so a cooling stage is needed to maintain the process temperature.
In a continuous plant, consisting of five membrane stacks in series, the holding time can be reduced to 10 — 40 minutes. In relation to capacity, the installed membrane area is much larger in a continuous plant than in a batch plant.
An electrodialysis plant can easily be automated and furnished with a programmed CIP system. The cleaning sequence normally includes water rinse, cleaning with an alkaline solution max. A typical cleaning programme takes minutes. Direct current is used in the electrodialysis plant, which should have facilities for regulating current in the range of 0 — A and voltage in the range of 0 — V. Flow rates, temperatures, conductivity, pH of process water and product, product inlet pressure, pressure difference between the stacks and current, as well as voltage over each membrane stack, are monitored and controlled during production.
Replacement is necessary due to fouling of the membranes, which in turn is caused by:. The first problem can be handled by proper flow design over the membrane surface and regular acid cleaning. Protein deposits are the main factor in shortening the lifetime of the anion membranes.
The background to this problem is as follows: These molecules, being too large to pass through the anion exchange membranes, are deposited as a thin protein layer on the faces of the anion exchange membranes in the whey compartments. Techniques such as polarity reversal can be used to dislodge these deposited materials from the membrane. Although frequent high-pH cleaning removes most of the deposits, disassembly of the stack for manual cleaning is recommended at intervals of 2 — 4 weeks.
The processing cost of electrodialysis depends very much on the de-mineralization rate. Water treatment, electric power, chemicals and steam account for the operating costs of a demineralization plant. Waste water treatment is a particularly heavy item. The phosphate removed from whey also accumulates in the waste stream. In contrast to electrodialysis, the process which removes ionizable solids from solutions on a continuous electro-chemical basis, an ion exchange process employs resin beads to adsorb minerals from solution, in exchange for other ionic species.
The resins have a finite capacity for this, so that when they are completely saturated, the adsorbed minerals must be removed and the resins regenerated before reuse. Normally, the resins are used in fixed columns of suitable design. Ion exchange resins are macromolecular porous plastic materials, formed into beads with diameters in the range of 0. Chemically, they act as insoluble acids or bases which, when converted into salts, remain insoluble.
The main characteristic of ion exchange resins is their capacity to exchange the mobile ions they contain for ions of the same charge sign, contained in the solution to be treated.
Almost anything can trigger an allergic response in a susceptible individual -- for example sunlight solar urticaria and water aquagenic urticaria can trigger responses in a small number of people. But dig deep enough, and a protein may still play a prominent role -- as can be seen in solar urticaria. However, our focus is on dietary proteins and protein allergies.
With that in mind, the primary culprits are:. But concerns about protein consumption do not end with food allergies and intolerances. There are a couple of other conditions that need to be mentioned:. Aminoacidemia may sound like a disease, but it's not. It is a condition in which excessive amounts of amino acids are present in the blood. If there is nothing in the diet, for example, to account for it, it could be indicative of missing or defective enzymes in the liver, which are essential for the breakdown of nitrogen containing amino acids in the body.
If your body can't sufficiently break down amino acids, it can lead to generalized hyper-aminoacidemia, and ultimately to neurotoxicity and early death. For years bodybuilders have claimed that excess amino acids dumped quickly into the bloodstream is a helpful condition for building muscle. Unfortunately, new studies now indicate that not only is this not necessarily true, but that aminoacidemia may be a contributing factor in the onset of diabetes.
Again, we're talking about intentionally induced aminoacidemia through diet. For years bodybuilders have claimed this is a helpful condition for building muscle, and for several years now, this has been one of the main selling features of whey protein in the bodybuilding community. The rational is that muscle growth is about staying in a positive nitrogen state. Exercise damages muscle, stresses it, and throws your body into a negative nitrogen catabolic breakdown state.
And the best way to take yourself out of a catabolic state and into a positive nitrogen anabolic building state is to consume the fastest absorbing protein you can get your hands on -- whey. And there is no question that whey protein induces a short term dramatic increase in blood levels of amino acids -- i. Unfortunately, new studies now indicate that this rational, taken as a whole, may not necessarily be true. Specifically, studies have confirmed the "paradox" of the highly soluble proteins found in whey and whey isolate, which, despite their high Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, ensure a rate of amino acid delivery that is too rapid to sustain the body's anabolic requirement during the minutes and hours after consuming it -- thus being counterproductive for the development of muscle.
Or in simple terms, aminoacidemia may not provide the benefit many bodybuilders think it does. But even worse, aminoacidemia may actually have long term health consequences.
One example is diabetes. This, of course, significantly lowers blood sugar levels. However, over time, this constant stimulation may overstress and degrade the ability of beta-cells to produce sufficient insulin when called for and may ultimately, over time, contribute to pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions in the body.
In addition, excess amino acids are converted into carbon dioxide, water, and ammonia. Ammonia is toxic to the body and is a primary cause of premature fatigue. Normally, the body handles excess ammonia by converting it to urea then filtering it through the kidneys. But if the ammonia level is too high, it overburdens the kidneys.
This is why doctors will insist on lower levels of protein intake in cases of kidney disease. And finally, although you can find studies all over the map on the question of high amino acid levels in the blood i.
For bodybuilders, the paradox of aminoacidemia says that the main virtue of whey, its high Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score, probably produces a rate of amino acid delivery that is too rapid to sustain the anabolic requirement during the immediate hours after consuming it — thus making it counterproductive for the development of muscle.
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