Her international achievements have made her a global thought leader in matters pertaining to the future of Africa, next-generation leaders and the role ICT and women play in the entrepreneurship realm. Brooklyn's Greek Americans live throughout the borough, especially in Bay Ridge and adjacent areas where there is a noticeable cluster of Hellenic-focused schools and cultural institutions, with many businesses concentrated there and in Downtown Brooklyn near Atlantic Avenue. As part of the new look schedule, the multi award-winning Tom Swarbrick returns to LBC as the new host of the weekend breakfast show, every Saturday and Sunday 7am to 10am , from 7th April. He has served as strategic director for hundreds of events and conducted training for EC officials on budgetary aid, as well as on economic and financial analysis. Accessed November 19,
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In the week before Beckham's presentation, Real named Carlos Queiroz as their new head coach, meaning that Beckham was reunited with a familiar face upon arriving to Madrid, since Queiroz had spent the previous season as Alex Ferguson's assistant at Manchester United.
In late July , the club went on a tour of the Far East as part of pre-season training, but also to cash in on Beckham's huge marketing appeal in Asia, where he enjoyed tremendous following. Real's brand recognition in that part of the globe was already well established as the club made financially successful trips to Asia during previous off-seasons.
The presence of a global marketing icon such as Beckham, however, made this particular tour a financial smash for los Merengues. Shortly after his transfer to Real, Beckham also ended his relationship with agent Tony Stephens of SFX Europe , who had guided him through his career until that point, including helping to engineer Beckham's move from Manchester to Madrid.
Beckham signed on with Simon Fuller and his company 19 Entertainment , which already managed the career of Victoria. In late August , Real Madrid won the Spanish Super Cup over two legs versus RCD Mallorca , with Beckham scoring the final goal in a 3—0 return leg win at home, thus setting the stage for the start of the league season.
Queiroz mostly favoured the adaptable 5—3—2 formation, with two fullbacks Míchel Salgado and Roberto Carlos , often joining the attack down the wings, while Beckham played on the right of the three-man midfield, alongside Zidane and Figo. Real Madrid were runners-up in the Copa del Rey , were knocked out of the UEFA Champions League at the quarter-final stage and finished the league season in fourth place, meaning the team, whose president Pérez expected them to win either the Spanish league or the Champions League each season, did not match expectations.
In July , while Beckham was in pre-season training in Spain, an intruder scaled a wall at the Beckham home while carrying a can of petrol. Victoria and their children were in the house at the time, but security guards apprehended the man before he reached the house. The league season began with new head coach José Antonio Camacho at the helm, but he ended up lasting only three matches, handing in his resignation as Real dropped to eighth spot in the La Liga standings.
Camacho's assistant Mariano García Remón took over on temporary basis as Real's leadership scrambled to find a permanent replacement. Beckham made more headlines on 9 October when he admitted intentionally fouling Ben Thatcher in an England match against Wales to get himself booked. Beckham was due to receive a one-match suspension for his next caution , and had picked up an injury which he knew would keep him out of England's next match, so he deliberately fouled Thatcher to serve his suspension in a match that he would have had to miss anyway.
The Football Association asked Beckham for an explanation of his actions and he admitted that he had "made a mistake" and apologised. Having received a yellow card , he was judged to have sarcastically applauded the referee and was given a second yellow card, causing an automatic dismissal, although the suspension was cancelled on appeal.
By Christmas , with the team sitting in second position in the league, García Remón was dismissed, and Vanderlei Luxemburgo became the new head coach. However, the well-travelled Brazilian failed to inspire the team to the title as Real again finished the season in second position. On 3 December , Beckham was sent off for the third time that season in a league match against Getafe CF.
By the end of that season, Beckham led La Liga in number of assists. During the season, Beckham established football academies in Los Angeles and east London and was named a judge for the British Book Awards. The season also marked the end of an era for the club as Pérez resigned his post as president in January , with Vicente Boluda named as replacement on an interim basis until the end of the season.
The summer off-season marked a turbulent time as the club's presidential elections were held. Ramón Calderón became the new Real president. As expected, none of the club officials who served under the previous president was kept, including head coach López Caro.
Initially out of favour with newly arrived head coach Fabio Capello , Beckham started only a few games at the beginning of the season, as the speedier José Antonio Reyes was normally preferred on the right wing. Of the first nine matches Beckham started, Real lost seven. However, he later claimed that he was mistranslated and that he actually said that Beckham's contract had not yet been renewed.
On 11 January , Beckham announced that he had signed a five-year deal to play for the LA Galaxy beginning 1 July On 13 January , Fabio Capello said that Beckham had played his last game for Real Madrid, although he continued to train with the team. About a month later, however, Capello backtracked on his earlier statement, allowing Beckham to rejoin the team for the match against Real Sociedad on 10 February The player immediately repaid his head coach's trust by scoring the equalising goal from a yard free kick, as Real Madrid eventually recorded a 2—1 victory.
Beckham played a pivotal role in all three Madrid goals in the home game, with Bayern goalkeeper Oliver Kahn describing his performance as "world class".
On 17 June , the last day of the La Liga season, Beckham started in his final match for the club, a 3—1 win over Mallorca which saw them clinch the title from Barcelona. With Real down 0—1, Beckham limped off the field and was replaced by José Antonio Reyes, who scored two goals, leading the team to that season's La Liga title , their first since Beckham had signed with them and 30th overall in the club's history. Although Real and Barçelona both finished level on points, Madrid took the title because of their superior head-to-head record, capping a remarkable six-month turnaround for Beckham.
Towards the end of the season, as Beckham was getting back into Capello's good books after successfully fighting his way back into the first team, Real Madrid announced they would try to untie his transfer to LA Galaxy, but were ultimately unsuccessful. The speculation about his new contract in Madrid was thus put to an end and the following day Beckham's official press conference was held in conjunction with the MLS SuperDraft.
The announcement made top news all across the globe. The high-profile acquisition paid immediate financial dividends for Galaxy long before Beckham joined the team. The gate revenue peaked as well with 11, new season tickets holders and sold-out luxury suites each one of the 42 inside the team's home ground, the Home Depot Center.
Involved on many business fronts worldwide, AEG was already leveraging its Beckham association in places such as China, where the company had been working aggressively in Shanghai and Beijing for years to receive clearance to build arenas and stadiums.
In the months following the announcement, the additional terms of Beckham's contract became public knowledge. Another provision was the opt-out clause after the season, meaning that should he decide so, Beckham was free to leave the club after completing year three of his five-year contract. Beckham's contract with LA Galaxy took effect on 11 July, and on 13 July, the famous Englishman was officially unveiled as a Galaxy player at the Home Depot Center to much fanfare and world media interest in front of more than 5, gathered fans and some accredited media members.
It was announced that Galaxy jersey sales had already reached a record figure of over , prior to this formal introduction. In parallel, Beckham's handlers at 19 Entertainment succeeded in putting together an unprecedented US media rollout designed to expand his carefully crafted personal brand in America. New Beginnings documentary produced by 19 Entertainment before the friendly match versus Chelsea , which was expected to be Beckham's American debut.
In addition to popularising soccer, Beckham's arrival was used as platform for entertainment industry endeavours. Since both Beckham's and his wife's often overlapping careers were handled by 19 Entertainment, which is owned by Simon Fuller , who in turn has a business relationship with the Creative Artists Agency CAA , one of Hollywood's most powerful talent agencies, it was important also for CAA that the Beckhams made as big an impact as possible upon their arrival in the United States.
Coming to America aired on NBC, drawing negative reviews in the press and poor viewership ratings. On Saturday afternoon, 21 July, despite still nursing the injured left ankle that he picked up a month earlier during the final match of La Liga's season, Beckham made his Galaxy debut, coming on for Alan Gordon in the 78th minute of a 0—1 friendly loss to Chelsea as part of the World Series of Soccer.
However, the proceedings on the field of play took a back seat to the Beckham spectacle, and despite the presence of worldwide football stars such as Andriy Shevchenko , Didier Drogba , Michael Ballack , and Frank Lampard , the US television cameras were firmly focused on Beckham who spent most of the match on the bench.
The match's added time featured a scare for already injured Beckham when he got tackled by Steve Sidwell whose cleats struck Beckham's right foot, sending him airborne before he crumpled hard to the ground. Though the existing injury was not aggravated too much, Beckham's recovery process was set back by about a week. ESPN's presentation of Beckham's debut earned a 1. Attended by many Hollywood A-listers , the lavish bash was big news in the US celebrity tabloid media, including daily entertainment TV magazines such as Entertainment Tonight and Access Hollywood.
It was in Toronto on 5 August that the team got its first taste of what life would be like on the road with Beckham on the roster. Due to security concerns, it was the first time the team flew on a charter for a road match, rather than flying commercial MLS normally forbids charter flights for away matches, claiming they provide competitive advantage, but in this case they made an exception due to the frenzy created around Beckham and resulting security issues.
Also, instead of the usual MLS-mandated modest hotels, LA Galaxy stayed at the five-star Le Méridien King Edward in downtown Toronto an expense paid for by the local Toronto promoter , while the glitz and glamour continued with the velvet rope, red carpet party at the Ultra Supper Club with Beckham as the centerpiece guest. Two weeks after his minute appearance against Chelsea, Beckham made his league debut as a substitute on 9 August away versus D.
United in front of the sellout crowd of 46, nearly three times the average D. He hit a long free kick that Carlos Pavón failed to finish on for the equaliser, and then in the final minutes Beckham served a weighted through ball into Landon Donovan 's path that United's keeper Troy Perkins managed to break up in the last moment — the Galaxy lost 1—0.
The next match on the road trip was at New England Revolution and Beckham decided to sit it out, fearing further aggravating his ankle injury on the Gillette Stadium 's artificial surface. Beckham returned to the pitch the following week, again facing D.
United, in the SuperLiga semi-final on 15 August. During this game he had many firsts with the Galaxy; his first start, first yellow card and first game as team captain. These goals gave the team a 2—0 victory, and a place in the North American SuperLiga final versus Pachuca on 29 August.
During the SuperLiga final against Pachuca, Beckham injured his right knee, with an MRI scan revealing that he had sprained his medial collateral ligament and would be out for six weeks. He returned to play in the final home match of the season. The Galaxy were eliminated from playoff contention on 21 October, in the final MLS match of the season, a 1—0 loss to the Chicago Fire. Beckham played as a substitute in the match, bringing his season totals to eight matches played 5 league ; one goal scored 0 league ; and three assists 2 league.
Beckham trained with Arsenal from 4 January for three weeks until he returned to the Galaxy for pre-season training. The goal marked the second time in Beckham's career that he had scored from his own half, the other being a goal from the half-way line against Wimbledon at Selhurst Park.
In , Beckham's success in the England national team under Fabio Capello led to speculation that he might return to Europe to retain match fitness for the World Cup qualifying matches in On 30 October , Milan announced that Beckham was to join them on loan from 7 January Beckham was unveiled at Milan's training facility by the club's chief executive Adriano Galliani on 20 December The player chose the number 32 shirt previously worn by Christian Vieri , as both the number 7 and 23 shirts were already used by Alexandre Pato and club vice captain Massimo Ambrosini , respectively.
After his physical, Beckham was reportedly told by a club doctor that he believed he could continue playing football for another five years, up to the age of Milan coach Carlo Ancelotti on Beckham's condition at 33 years old. Though clearly lacking match fitness, occasionally struggling to keep up in a high-tempo match, Beckham put in enough useful crosses and corners to justify the coach Carlo Ancelotti 's decision to play him from the start.
A noticeably older team, Ancelotti-coached Milan was proving a good fit for the year-old Englishman. He scored his first goal in Serie A for Milan in a 4—1 victory over Bologna on 25 January, his third appearance for the club. The rumours were confirmed on 4 February, when Beckham stated that he was seeking a permanent transfer to Milan in a bid to sustain his England career through the World Cup.
Still, negotiations continued during a month of speculation. After his return from Milan, many LA fans showed dislike and anger towards him as he missed the first half of the season and several held up signs saying "Go home fraud", and "Part-time player". He remained a key part of the squad which saw Galaxy win the Western Conference final after a 2—0 overtime victory over the Houston Dynamo.
Beckham also scored in the shootout. In November , after the end of MLS season, it was confirmed that Beckham would return to Milan for a second loan period beginning in January Beckham returned to Old Trafford for the second leg of the tie on 10 March ; he did not start the match, but was brought on for Ignazio Abate in the 64th minute to a positive reception from the Manchester United fans.
The score was 3—0 for United at that point and the tie was all but decided. The match was the first time Beckham had played against Manchester United at Old Trafford and saw him create several scoring opportunities via crosses and corner kicks, but Manchester United dominated Milan and beat them 4—0, winning the tie 7—2.
As the fan protests against Glazer by the people gathered around Manchester United Supporters' Trust gained steam in , the green-and-gold scarf had come to be seen as an anti-Glazer symbol, and by extension many saw Beckham's decision to publicly put it on as gesture of support.
When asked about it later, however, Beckham responded that protests are not his business. In Milan's next game, against Chievo , Beckham suffered a torn left Achilles tendon ,  causing him to miss the World Cup as well as the MLS season due to the injury, which took him out of action for the next five months.
The prognosis is he needs a rehabilitation for the next few months, and the plaster cast is the next six to eight weeks. I would say that [it will be] maybe four months before he's running, but six months before he's jumping and kicking.
On 11 September , after recovering from his Achilles tendon injury, Beckham returned to the game as a substitute in the 70th minute in the Galaxy's 3—1 win over Columbus Crew.
Rumours in the media claimed that the club were in talks with the Galaxy to sign the player on loan, but, according to Spurs manager Harry Redknapp , the move was blocked by Galaxy, who wanted a full final season from their number On 15 May, Beckham scored his first goal of the season for the Galaxy from a yard free kick, in a 4—1 victory over Sporting Kansas City.
After having his best season with the Galaxy to date and finishing second in the league in assists, Beckham finished his fifth MLS season on a high. On 20 November , he joined an elite group of players to have won league titles in three countries, when Los Angeles won their third MLS Cup against the Houston Dynamo, winning 1—0 on a goal by captain Landon Donovan, with assists from Beckham and fellow designated player Robbie Keane. Following the season, in which the Galaxy won their second consecutive Supporters' Shield , having the second most points in MLS history, Beckham's five-year contract with the Galaxy expired on 31 December Despite being 36, he stated that he did not intend to retire.
Beckham was heavily linked with Paris Saint-Germain , but on 18 January , Galaxy announced Beckham had signed a new two-year contract to remain in Los Angeles. Beckham helped the Galaxy to a fourth-place finish in the MLS Western Conference regular season with Beckham scoring seven goals and adding nine assists.
On 31 January , ahead of the transfer deadline it was announced that Beckham would be undergoing a medical with Paris Saint-Germain ahead of a potential move to the Ligue 1 side. This made him the th player in the history of the club. On 16 May , Beckham announced that he would retire from professional football at the end of that year's French football season. These boots had the names of his wife and children stitched on to them.
On 18 May , Beckham was made captain in his final home game against Brest. Beckham was subbed after 80 minutes, receiving hugs from his fellow players and manager, as well as a standing ovation from fans.
Beckham made his first appearance for the England national team on 1 September , in a World Cup qualifying match against Moldova. Beckham had played in all of England's qualifying matches for the World Cup and was part of the England squad at the World Cup finals in France,  but the team's manager Glenn Hoddle publicly accused him of not concentrating on the tournament,  and he did not start in either of England's first two games.
He was picked for the third game against Colombia and scored with a bending yard free kick in a 2—0 victory, which was his first goal for England. In the second round last 16 of that competition, he received a red card in England's match against Argentina. Many supporters and journalists blamed him for England's elimination and he became the target of criticism and abuse, including the hanging of an effigy outside a London pub , and the Daily Mirror printing a dartboard with a picture of him centred on the bullseye.
Beckham also received death threats after the World Cup. The abuse that Beckham was receiving from English supporters peaked during England's 3—2 defeat by Portugal in Euro , a match where Beckham set up two goals, when a group of England supporters taunted him throughout the match.
On 15 November , following Kevin Keegan 's resignation as England manager in October, Beckham was promoted to team captain by the caretaker manager Peter Taylor , and then kept the role under new manager Sven-Göran Eriksson. The final step in Beckham's conversion from villain to national hero happened in England's final qualifying game against Greece on 6 October When Teddy Sheringham was fouled eight yards outside the Greek penalty area, England were awarded a free-kick and Beckham ensured England's qualification with a curling strike of the kind that had become his trademark.
Beckham was partially fit by the time of the World Cup held in Japan and South Korea, and played in the first match against Sweden. After the events of four years earlier, Beckham achieved a degree of revenge over Argentina by scoring the winning goal with a penalty, causing Argentina to fail to qualify for the knockout stage. England were knocked out in the quarter-finals by eventual winners Brazil after Ronaldinho scored the winner.
The following month, at the opening ceremony of the Commonwealth Games in Manchester, Beckham escorted Kirsty Howard as she presented the Jubilee Baton to the Queen. Beckham played in all of England's matches at Euro He had a penalty saved in England's 2—1 defeat to France and missed another in a penalty shootout in the quarter-final match against Portugal. He captained England for the 50th time in a friendly international against Argentina the following month. In England's next match, played against Trinidad and Tobago on 15 June , Beckham's cross in the 83rd minute led to a Peter Crouch goal, which put England into the lead 1—0.
Beckham gave another assist to Steven Gerrard. In the end they won 2—0. He was named Man of the Match by tournament sponsor Budweiser. During England's second round match against Ecuador , Beckham scored from a free kick in the 59th minute, becoming the first English player to score in three separate World Cups,  and giving England a 1—0 victory and a place in the quarter-finals.
He was sick before the game and vomited several times as a result of dehydration and illness that he got after having scored the winning goal for England. A day after England were knocked out of the World Cup, an emotional Beckham made a statement in a news conference that he had stepped down as England captain,  stating, "It has been an honour and privilege to captain my country but, having been captain for 58 of my 95  games, I feel the time is right to pass on the armband as we enter a new era under Steve McClaren.
He was succeeded by Chelsea captain John Terry. Having stepped down as captain after the World Cup, Beckham was dropped completely from the England national team selected by new coach Steve McClaren on 11 August McClaren claimed that he was "looking to go in a different direction" with the team, and that Beckham "wasn't included within that.
On 26 May , McClaren announced that Beckham would be recalled to the England squad for the first time since stepping down as their captain. Beckham started against Brazil in England's first match at the new Wembley Stadium and put in a positive performance. In the second half, he set up England's goal converted by captain John Terry.
It looked as though England would claim victory over Brazil, but newcomer Diego equalised in the dying seconds. Beckham had assisted in three of England's four total goals in those two games,  and he stated his desire to continue to play for England after his move to Major League Soccer. On 22 August , Beckham played in a friendly for England against Germany , becoming the first to play for England while with a non-European club team.
Following the 2—3 loss, England failed to qualify for the Euro Finals. Despite this, Beckham said that he has no plans to retire from international football and wanted to continue playing for the national team. Beckham became only the fifth Englishman to win caps. Capello had hinted on 25 March that Beckham had a long-term future in his side ahead of crucial qualifiers for the World Cup.
Beckham was honoured before the match by receiving an honorary gold cap representing his th cap from Bobby Charlton , and was given a standing ovation from the crowd. He played well and assisted John Terry on the match-winning goal. When substituted at half-time for David Bentley , the pro-Beckham crowd booed the decision. The match was the first time since the World Cup that Beckham had skippered England and marked a dramatic turnaround for Beckham. In two years, he had gone from being dropped completely from the England squad to being reinstated though temporarily as England captain.
During the World Cup Qualifier against Belarus in which England won 3—1 in Minsk , Beckham came off the bench in the 87th minute to earn his th cap making him England's third-most- capped player in history, overtaking Bobby Charlton in the process. On 11 February , Beckham drew level with Bobby Moore 's record of caps for an English outfield player, coming on as a substitute for Stewart Downing in a friendly match against Spain.
After a poor performance from England at the World Cup, Capello remained as manager but was under pressure to revamp the England squad for the imminent UEFA Euro qualification campaign.
He unveiled a new team at the next England match, a home friendly game against Hungary on 11 August , with Beckham still unavailable for selection but aiming for a return to playing in MLS by the following month.
David is a fantastic player but I think we need new players for the future", referring to the new players that play in Beckham's right midfield position, including Theo Walcott and Adam Johnson , adding "This is the future of the team under Fabio Capello or another manager. Beckham was a product of Sir Alex Ferguson 's hard-working approach at Manchester United, and was renowned for his long-range passing, crossing ability, and bending free-kicks as a right winger.
Ferguson noted that Beckham "practised with a discipline to achieve an accuracy that other players wouldn't care about. Beckham maintained his training routine at Real Madrid and even when his relationship with management was strained in early , Real Madrid president Ramón Calderón and manager Fabio Capello praised Beckham for maintaining his professionalism and commitment to the club. In May , asked about how he wanted to be remembered in his retirement, Beckham said, "I just want people to see me as a hardworking footballer, someone that's passionate about the game, someone that — every time I stepped on the pitch — I've given everything that I have, because that's how I feel.
That's how I look back on it and hope people will see me. Beckham was the first England player ever to collect two red cards, and the first England captain to be sent off. Beckham, lying face down on the pitch, kicked out at the Argentine midfielder, who fell dramatically.
He amassed 41 yellow cards and four red cards in his time at Real Madrid; all four reds came in La Liga. It was announced in late that both would close. Club Internacional de Futbol Miami — more commonly know as, Inter Miami — is represented by a black crest with neon pink trimmings and herons whose legs clasp to form an "M" for Miami. Therefore, their relationship instantly attracted a great deal of media attention.
The couple were dubbed " Posh and Becks " by the media. On 4 July , they married at Luttrellstown Castle in Ireland. Beckham's teammate Gary Neville was the best man,  and the couple's infant son, Brooklyn, was the ring bearer.
Magazine , but newspapers were still able to obtain photographs showing them sitting on golden thrones. David and Victoria Beckham have four children: In his early Manchester United career, Beckham lived in a four-bedroom house in Worsley that he bought directly from the property developer as a year-old in Hispanics and Latinos made up In , Brooklyn had some neighborhoods segregated based on race, ethnicity, and religion.
According to the U. Census Bureau estimates, there are 2,, people up from 2. Of the , households in Brooklyn, Of all households The average household size was 2. In Brooklyn the population was spread out with The median age was 33 years. Brooklyn has more women and girls, with Brooklyn's lesbian community is the largest out of all of the New York City boroughs.
Brooklyn has a high degree of linguistic diversity. As of , Brooklyn's neighborhoods are dynamic in ethnic composition. For example, during the early to midth century, Brownsville had a majority of Jewish residents; since the s it has been majority African American. Midwood during the early 20th century was filled with ethnic Irish , then filled with Jewish residents for nearly 50 years, and is slowly becoming a Pakistani enclave.
Brooklyn's most populous racial group, white, declined from The borough attracts people previously living in other cities in the United States. Given New York City's role as a crossroads for legal and illegal immigration from around the world, Brooklyn has evolved a globally cosmopolitan ambience of its own, demonstrating a robust and growing demographic and cultural diversity with respect to metrics including nationality, religion, race, and domiciliary partnership.
Brooklyn contains dozens of distinct neighborhoods representing many of the major culturally identified groups found within New York City.
Among the most prominent are listed below:. Over , Jews , particularly Orthodox Jews and Hasidic Jews , have become concentrated in Borough Park , Williamsburg, and Flatbush , where there are many yeshivas , synagogues , and kosher restaurants, as well as many other Jewish businesses. The largest concentration is in Sunset Park along 8th Avenue, which is known for Chinese culture. Many Chinese restaurants can be found throughout Sunset Park, and the area hosts a popular Chinese New Year celebration.
Brooklyn's African American and Caribbean communities are spread throughout much of Brooklyn. Brooklyn is home to one of the largest communities of West Indians outside of the Caribbean, being rivaled only by Toronto, Miami, Montreal, and London. Although the largest West Indian groups in Brooklyn are mostly Jamaicans , Guyanese and Haitians , there are West Indian immigrants from nearly every part of the Caribbean.
Brooklyn has an annual, celebrated Carnival in the tradition of pre-Lenten celebrations in the islands. Bushwick is the largest hub of Brooklyn's Latino American community. Brooklyn's main Latino groups are Puerto Ricans, Mexicans , Dominicans, and Panamanians ; they are spread out throughout the borough. Brooklyn is also home to many Russians and Ukrainians , who are mainly concentrated in the areas of Brighton Beach and Sheepshead Bay.
Originally these communities were mostly Jewish; however, the non-Jewish Russian and Ukrainian communities of Brighton Beach now also represent various aspects of Russian and Ukrainian culture.
Brooklyn's Polish are largely concentrated in Greenpoint , which is home to Little Poland. They are also scattered throughout the southern parts of Brooklyn. Italian Americans are mainly concentrated in the neighborhoods of Bensonhurst , Dyker Heights , Bay Ridge , Bath Beach , Gravesend , Cobble Hill , and Carroll Gardens , where there are many Italian restaurants, bakeries, delicatessens, pizzerias, cafes, and social clubs.
Today, Arab Americans and Pakistani Americans along with other Muslim communities have moved into the southwest portion of Brooklyn, particularly to Bay Ridge , where there are many Middle Eastern restaurants, hookah lounges, halal shops, Islamic shops and mosques. Earlier, the area was known predominately for its Irish, Norwegian, and Scottish populations. Those that stayed engendered close-knit and stable communities, representing many to the civil services esp.
Brooklyn's Greek Americans live throughout the borough, especially in Bay Ridge and adjacent areas where there is a noticeable cluster of Hellenic-focused schools and cultural institutions, with many businesses concentrated there and in Downtown Brooklyn near Atlantic Avenue.
Greek-owned diners are also found throughout the borough. Brooklyn is home to a large and growing population of same-sex couples. Same-sex marriages in New York were legalized on June 24, , and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. However, rents and costs of living have since increased dramatically in these same neighborhoods, forcing artists to move to somewhat less expensive neighborhoods in Brooklyn or across Upper New York Bay to locales in New Jersey, such as Jersey City or Hoboken.
Since consolidation with New York City in , Brooklyn has been governed by the New York City Charter that provides for a "strong" mayor-council system.
The centralized government of New York City is responsible for public education , correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services. On the other hand, the Brooklyn Public Library is an independent nonprofit organization partially funded by the government of New York City, but also by the government of New York State , the U.
The office of Borough President was created in the consolidation of to balance centralization with local authority. Each borough president had a powerful administrative role derived from having a vote on the New York City Board of Estimate , which was responsible for creating and approving the city's budget and proposals for land use. In , the Supreme Court of the United States declared the Board of Estimate unconstitutional because Brooklyn, the most populous borough, had no greater effective representation on the Board than Staten Island, the least populous borough; it was a violation of the high court's "one man, one vote" reading of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Since , the Borough President has acted as an advocate for the borough at the mayoral agencies, the City Council, the New York state government, and corporations.
Adams replaced popular Borough President Marty Markowitz , also a Democrat , who partially used his office to promote tourism and new development for Brooklyn.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices, and the borough is very liberal. As of November , Each of the city's five counties coterminous with each borough has its own criminal court system and District Attorney , the chief public prosecutor who is directly elected by popular vote.
Thompson following his death in October Brooklyn has 18 of the city's 59 community districts, each served by an unpaid Community Board with advisory powers under the city's Uniform Land Use Review Procedure.
Each board has a paid district manager who acts as an interlocutor with city agencies. Brooklyn's job market is driven by three main factors: Forty-four percent of Brooklyn's employed population, or , people, work in the borough; more than half of the borough's residents work outside its boundaries. As a result, economic conditions in Manhattan are important to the borough's jobseekers. Strong international immigration to Brooklyn generates jobs in services, retailing and construction.
Since the late 20th century, Brooklyn has benefited from a steady influx of financial back office operations from Manhattan, the rapid growth of a high-tech and entertainment economy in DUMBO , and strong growth in support services such as accounting, personal supply agencies, and computer services firms.
Jobs in the borough have traditionally been concentrated in manufacturing, but since , Brooklyn has shifted from a manufacturing-based to a service-based economy.
In , , Brooklyn residents worked in the services sector, while 27, worked in manufacturing. Although manufacturing has declined, a substantial base has remained in apparel and niche manufacturing concerns such as furniture, fabricated metals, and food products. However, new light-manufacturing concerns packaging organic and high-end food have sprung up in the old plant.
First established as a shipbuilding facility in , the Brooklyn Navy Yard employed 70, people at its peak during World War II and was then the largest employer in the borough. The Missouri , the ship on which the Japanese formally surrendered, was built there, as was the Maine , whose sinking off Havana led to the start of the Spanish—American War.
The iron-sided Civil War vessel the Monitor was built in Greenpoint. From — Seatrain Shipbuilding was the major employer. About private-sector firms providing 4, jobs are at the Yard. Construction and services are the fastest growing sectors. Brooklyn is also home to many banks and credit unions.
According to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation , there were 37 banks and 26 credit unions operating in the borough in Brooklyn is also attracting numerous high technology start-up companies , as Silicon Alley , the metonym for New York City's entrepreneurship ecosystem , has expanded from Lower Manhattan into Brooklyn. Brooklyn has played a major role in various aspects of American culture including literature, cinema, and theater.
The Brooklyn accent has often been portrayed as the "typical New York accent" in American media, although this accent and stereotype are supposedly fading out. Brooklyn hosts the world-renowned Brooklyn Academy of Music , the Brooklyn Philharmonic , and the second largest public art collection in the United States, housed in the Brooklyn Museum.
It has in its permanent collection more than 1. The Brooklyn Children's Museum , the world's first museum dedicated to children, opened in December Brooklyn has several local newspapers: The borough is home to the bi-weekly cultural guide The L Magazine and the arts and politics monthly Brooklyn Rail , as well as the arts and cultural quarterly Cabinet. Brooklyn Magazine is one of the few glossy magazines about Brooklyn. Several others, that are now defunct, include: Brooklyn has a thriving ethnic press.
Many nationally distributed ethnic newspapers are based in Brooklyn. Over 60 ethnic groups, writing in 42 languages, publish some non-English language magazines and newspapers in New York City.
Among them the quarterly " L'Idea ", a bilingual magazine printed in Italian and English since Brooklyn Community Access Television is the borough's public access channel.
The Nets and Islanders moved into the borough in and , respectively, and both play their home games at Barclays Center in Prospect Heights. Brooklyn also has a storied sports history.
In the earliest days of organized baseball, Brooklyn teams dominated the new game. The second recorded game of baseball was played near what is today Fort Greene Park on October 24, Brooklyn's most famous historical team, the Brooklyn Dodgers , named for "trolley dodgers" played at Ebbets Field.
The event was marked by mass euphoria and celebrations. Just two years later, the Dodgers moved to Los Angeles. Walter O'Malley , the team's owner at the time, is still vilified, even by Brooklynites too young to remember the Dodgers as Brooklyn's ball club. After a year hiatus, professional baseball returned to the borough in with the Brooklyn Cyclones , a minor league team that plays in MCU Park in Coney Island. They are an affiliate of the New York Mets. Brooklyn has one of the most active recreational fishing fleets in the United States.
About 57 percent of all households in Brooklyn were households without automobiles. The citywide rate is 55 percent in New York City. Brooklyn features extensive public transit. Major stations, out of the currently in Brooklyn , include:. Brooklyn was once served by an extensive network of streetcars , many of which were replaced by the public bus network that covers the entire borough.
There is also daily express bus service into Manhattan. There are three commuter rail stations in Brooklyn: In February , Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin a citywide ferry service called NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to communities in the city that have been traditionally underserved by public transit.
A third route, the Rockaway ferry, makes one stop in the borough at Brooklyn Army Terminal. A streetcar line, the Brooklyn—Queens Connector , was proposed by the city in February ,  with the planned timeline calling for service to begin around The great majority of limited-access expressways and parkways are located in the western and southern sections of Brooklyn.
Planned expressways that were never built include the Bushwick Expressway, an extension of I  and the Cross-Brooklyn Expressway, I Much of Brooklyn has only named streets, but Park Slope , Bay Ridge , Sunset Park , Bensonhurst , and Borough Park and the other western sections have numbered streets running approximately northwest to southeast, and numbered avenues going approximately northeast to southwest.
East of Dahill Road, lettered avenues like Avenue M run east and west, and numbered streets have the prefix "East". Numbered streets prefixed by "North" and "South" in Williamsburg, and "Bay", "Beach", "Brighton", "Plumb", "Paerdegat" or "Flatlands" along the southern and southwestern waterfront are loosely based on the old grids of the original towns of Kings County that eventually consolidated to form Brooklyn.
These names often reflect the bodies of water or beaches around them, such as Plumb Beach or Paerdegat Basin. Brooklyn is connected to Manhattan by three bridges, the Brooklyn , Manhattan , and Williamsburg bridges; a vehicular tunnel, the Hugh L.
Carey Tunnel formerly the Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel ; and several subway tunnels. The Queen Mary 2 , one of the world's largest ocean liners , was designed specifically to fit under the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, the longest suspension bridge in the United States. She makes regular ports of call at the Red Hook terminal on her transatlantic crossings from Southampton, England. In February , Mayor Bill de Blasio announced that the city government would begin NYC Ferry to extend ferry transportation to traditionally underserved communities in the city.
The South Brooklyn and Rockaway routes serve southwestern Brooklyn before terminating in lower Manhattan. SeaStreak also offers weekday ferry service between the Brooklyn Army Terminal and the Manhattan ferry slips at Pier 11 downtown and East 34th Street in midtown. A Cross-Harbor Rail Tunnel , originally proposed in the s as a core project for the then new Port Authority of New York is again being studied and discussed as a way to ease freight movements across a large swath of the metropolitan area.
Education in Brooklyn is provided by a vast number of public and private institutions. Public schools in the borough are managed by the New York City Department of Education , the largest public school system.
Brooklyn Technical High School commonly called Brooklyn Tech , a New York City public high school, is the largest specialized high school for science, mathematics, and technology in the United States. Brooklyn Tech is located across the street from Fort Greene Park. It covers about half of a city block. Brooklyn College is a senior college of the City University of New York , and was the first public coeducational liberal arts college in New York City. Many of its students are first and second generation Americans.
Founded in , Medgar Evers College is a senior college of the City University of New York , with a mission to develop and maintain high quality, professional, career-oriented undergraduate degree programs in the context of a liberal arts education. The College offers programs both at the baccalaureate and associate degree levels, as well as Adult and Continuing Education classes for Central Brooklyn residents, corporations, government agencies, and community organizations.
That institution—which became the Voorhees Technical Institute many decades later—was soon a model for the development of technical and vocational schools worldwide. In , Voorhees was incorporated into City Tech. The Nobel Prize winner Robert F. Furchgott was a member of its faculty. Do I beat the eggs before I fold them into the mix?
I always believed folding eggs was done so as to not destroy the air that had been whipped into them. Any clarification would be appreciated!
Thanks for sharing the recipe! We had something similar at our local pie restaurant, and I really want to try my hand at it. This pie is in my top 3 favorites. December 8, Cream and Sugar. This pie is to die for…so smooth, not too sweet and just fantastic! Thanks for sharing the recipe.