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Exercise is Medicine®: A Global Health Initiative

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The prevalence of having been in a physical fight was higher among 9th-grade Retrospective study on childhood obesity prevalence and its prevention. Potential contamination with chemical and biological agents and radionuclear materials and interruption of food supplies need to be considered in the development and review of food safety management programmes, which may vary from rudimentary to well developed. The prevalence of having ever smoked cigarettes daily was higher among 10th-grade 6. Nm and ganglioside GD2 are still other tumor markers associated with poor outcome, active disease and tumor progression. Use the drop down at the top of the page to narrow down the list of topics to those that are approved for dietitians.

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Engaging Dietitians in Research and Publications: It's Easier Than a Diet Calculation! Understand how to initiate and participate in scientific research. Describe what is needed to successfully publish a paper or poster presentation. Join our speaker, Dr. By attending the webinar, participants will be able to understand: Newborn Screening and Expanded Access: Join our speaker, Kelly Tappenden, for an educational webinar on the role of prebiotics for infants with inborn errors of metabolism. This webinar will cover topics such as microbiome and infant nutrition.

Participants will be able to apply knowledge of prebiotics and gut health when caring for infants with metabolic disorders. Participants of the webinar will be able to: Identify the available body of evidence and experience in using prebiotic fiber in infants with inborn errors of metabolism. Understand latest research on the efficacy and acceptability of prebiotics in infants with metabolic disorders.

By attending the webinar participants will be able to: Learn about the published data relating to bone health issues in PKU. Gain understanding of how the new guidelines were developed. Describe the main recommendations of the new guidelines. Formulate implications for clinical practice. Eligible for one CEU credit. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fat for children. Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fat and its function in individuals with PKU.

Join our speaker Dr. Kelly Tappenden, PhD, RD, for a one hour presentation on the importance of dietary fiber including prebiotics and recommendations for dietary intake. Definition of dietary fiber, prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics, and identifies available sources. Evidence supporting clinical use of dietary fiber and prebiotics. The importance of including formula with fiber added into the diet. Learn about best practices for this patient population.

Join our experts and Dr. This Webinar is a useful resource for all those not working with metabolic patients on a regular basis, but also experienced practitioners training others.

Overview of dietary management of metabolic patients. Grant Mitchell and Manon Bouchard, Dt. Understand the biochemical background of tyrosinemia. Learn about nutritional management of this patient group. Understand the biochemical background of UCDs. Anticipate common feeding issues that arise in children with inborn errors of metabolism.

Be able to initiate strategies to minimize feeding problems when they do arise. Protect oral eating potential if enteral nutrition is necessary for medical reasons. Most serious consequence of acute MSUD crisis. Outcome of the most severe cases of MSUD encephalopathy.

By the end of this webinar, participants will be able to: Define the terms, culture and ethnic background. Understand the premise of "Ethno-consciousness in MNT counseling. Provide examples of different KD initiation protocols used in other countries. Provide examples of how to prepare a KD for specific ethnic and cultural backgrounds.

Content presented during this event will be geared towards clinicians who do not have or have limited experience with the ketogenic diet and would like to learn about the ketogenic diet for epilepsy.

Please send this information to a colleague who may find this webinar event useful! Understand the basics of the ketogenic diet and the importance of the ratio.

Identify lab values to monitor and tips for success. List potential gastrointestinal GI complications of the ketogenic diet. Evaluate possible interventions for GI complications of the ketogenic diet.

Interpret the latest research for older children, adolescents and adults on the ketogenic diet. Compare and contrast the use of variations of the ketogenic diet in older children, adolescents and adults.

Define and describe obstacles of older children, adolescents and adults on the ketogenic diet and ways to address them. Calculate how to make changes to various forms of the ketogenic diet. Appropriately adjust calories, ketogenic diet ratio and supplements based on nutrition needs. Determine appropriate interventions for a sick patient on the ketogenic diet dependent upon symptoms.

List common vitamin and minerals that will not meet the Dietary Reference Intake guidelines on the ketogenic diet. Become comfortable recommending appropriate supplements for a patient on the Ketogenic Diet.

Decide when to choose the MCT oil diet vs. Calculate and design an MCT oil diet by hand and develop a meal plan. Formulate a protocol to initiate an MCT oil diet. Identify ways to initiate the ketogenic diet for a patient in status epilepticus. Review the ketogenic diet induction process in the NICU. Recite potential complications and troubleshooting related to diet initiation in the NICU. Describe the evidence surrounding the efficacy of the classic ketogenic diet. Implement the learnings in calculating the cKD.

This webinar is hosted by The Carson Harris Foundation. Listing with kind permission. Please join presenters Dr. Review of scientific evidence; experiences with adults on the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet for adults from the perspective of the dietitian. Introducing the Ketogenic Diet for already tub-fed patients. Hints and tips for a successful implementation. Identify disorders for which the ketogenic diet is contraindicated. Identify conditions that benefit from ketogenic diet therapy.

Identify a specific diet recommendation for one disorder or condition. Where does MCT fit in? One 1 CEU credit will be awarded upon completon. Potential nutrient deficiencies commonly associated with the ketogenic diet. How to monitor, manage and prevent deficiencies. Review of the literature and research on the role of blood ketone testing in initiating and managing the ketogenic diet.

Parents are sharing their personal experiences with the ketogenic diet and are answering FAQ from their perspective. Please feel free to share this link with your patient families. How to get families ready for the ketogenic diet. Review of scientific literature regarding usage of the ketogenic diet KD in infants. Various insurance policies that include the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet from the perspective of the dietitian. Please join presenter Dr. Overview of the Modified Atkins Diet therapy approach for nutritional therapy of epilepsy.

Urinary tract infections UTI are the second most frequent infection in long-term care facilities and the most common cause of hospitalization for bacterial infection.

However, often times UTIs are misdiagnosed resulting in misuse of antibiotics1. At the end of this presentation, participants will be able to: Identify challenges and strategies to monitor long-term care residents for symptoms associated with urinary tract infection.

Differentiate urinary tract infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria in the long-term care population. Discuss evidence surrounding UTI diagnosis and current issues with antibiotic resistance. Identify nutrition-related strategies for UTI management including the use of cranberry and hydration.

Apply knowledge gained about UTI surveillance, diagnosis and management to a clinical scenario. Detail the effect of key nutrients in pressure injury healing. What is the Role of the RD? Joy is a Certified Specialist in Gerontological Nutrition, a specialty certification indicating advance practice in gerontology. List medical conditions commonly responsible for hospital readmissions. Discuss federal initiatives to decrease hospital readmissions. Describe ways in which they can support their facility in reducing hospital readmissions.

Please join us for a free, one hour, educational webinar with Dr. Understand the implications of nutritional risk. Learn which patient populations should receive trophic feeds and which require full feeds closer to goal requirements.

Webinar attendees will be able to: Describe the obesity prevalence and the challenges with the obese patient in the ICU setting. Outline hypocaloric, high protein nutrition support for the obese critically ill patient. Understand what instrumental evaluations are necessary to accurately determine the need for a thickened liquid. Explain the rationale for thickening liquids and what a thickener is. Identify the levels of thickness apparent viscosities. She will highlight the importance of nutrition in wound healing, including nutrient and fluid needs, and the impact of body composition and the stress response to injury on healing.

Recognize the importance of screening and assessment to identify malnutrition and pressure ulcer risk. Examine the building block of nutrition macronutrients and micronutrients that impact healing. Discuss practical nutrition and hydration strategies for healing wounds. There are eight recorded webinars and two self-study courses.

Webinars are also available on their YouTube channel. This is an extensive listing of topics which can be filtered by profession type, key word, or life cycle stage. The above link will take you to the page which lists the quarterly newsletters as well as the test for each one. The first six in the list of recorded webinars are the only ones available for credit Functional Foods through Culinary Competency. One of the available topics for credit is Ethics new CDR requirement. Use the drop down at the top of the page to narrow down the list of topics to those that are approved for dietitians.

Skip to main content. John Bagnulo July 28, EST Have you read that nutritional intervention has little impact on the progression of cancer? About the Presenter Dr. Rebuilding a Patient's Microbiome. He serves as the Medical Director for Functional Formularies, manufacturer of the World's only organic, whole-food, enteral formulas for critically ill patients.

Educating about the connection between food and health is our company's focus and has brought us front and center of the health revolution. Functional Formularies invites you to participate in our Free Webinar Series.

The topics are enlightening and represent our core values. All interested people are welcome to join. The microbiome is a complex and dynamic ecosystem, changing with every aspect of our lifestyle. Different fiber qualities, carbohydrate densities, and types of sugar have distinct effects on the microbiota.

Fat and oil qualities can produce measurable changes in the populations of bacteria families, as well as the presence on specific agrochemicals such as glyphosate and food preservatives such as emulsifiers. Click here for the recording. I always have at least one new free CEU Webinar available monthly on my main page as well,. Go to the bottom of the above page for the above two topics, both of which are free.

Receive up to 8. Share this with your friends: Webinars scheduled monthly Time: Each offered at See schedule on the link below CPE: Today's Dietitian Topic s: Abbott Nutrition Health Institute Topic s: This is an extensive listing of topics which can be filtered by profession type, key word, or life cycle stage Sponsor: DanneMiller Education Center Topic s: CDR Activities Dannemiller Education Center Sponsor: Phytochemicals, Sodium, Nutrigenomics, Sports Nutrition, etc.

Skelly Skills Topic s: It is very important that information on crop estimates should not only be objective and unbiased, but should also be perceived to be such. The Government will ensure that the composition and operations of the National Crop Estimates Committee enhance its reputation for accurate and objective estimates.

The Government will also put in place additional mechanisms to report on the commodities where existing arrangements for the collection and reporting of market information are inadequate.

The Government recognises that one of the legacies of apartheid policies is missing or incomplete markets in areas where black farmers are located. This results from, among other things, unequal access to marketing information. Furthermore, international experience, obtained particularly from structural adjustment lessons, shows that adherence to the market, without paying attention to the constraints smaller farmers face, can lead to these farmers being further marginalised and income disparities being accentuated.

Government policies are addressing the marketing information problem for small and medium-scale farmers in a number of ways. The Government believes that deregulation of agricultural markets will go a long way to improve small and medium-scale farmers' access to marketing information. As the policy environment becomes conducive to small scale production, and when these farmers are less excluded from existing marketing arrangements, it is likely that traders will provide more information to farmers to stimulate the volume of their trade.

Institutional innovation involving producer and trader organisations, such as cooperatives, will also contribute to providing information. The Government's role will be to help build capacity in these organisations to enable them to meet the needs of their members see section 3. More specifically, the Government will ensure that appropriate institutional arrangements are in place for collecting, analysing and disseminating information to small and medium-scale farmers.

The focus will be on information enabling farmers to make better decisions regarding what to produce, when to harvest and sell and where to sell. This will include information on:. In order to ensure that the Government's role and responsibilities in relation to market access and market information are most effectively organised and properly resourced, new initiatives and procedures and their organisational and resource implications are being investigated.

The extension services will also be expected to play a significant role in disseminating such information. The envisaged reorientation of extension workers will include training in advising farmers on marketing their commodities, and helping farmers to understand marketing costs and margins.

Agriculture in South Africa is emerging from a history of protection and subsidisation described in section 1 which affected the structure, efficiency and competitiveness of the sector. Our strategy for achieving our set objectives of making agriculture more efficient, creating jobs and opportunities and using resources sustainably, is based on an outward-looking approach. In this approach the global village is seen not only as a market for output, but as a tool for effecting efficiency by exposing our producers to international competition.

The objectives of the agricultural trade policy are to enhance and maintain market access for agricultural products and ensure that the sector contributes to its full potential to the export growth target aspired to in GEAR. Agricultural exports are critical to the achievement of this target since their contribution to total export earnings is substantial. The potential for export growth in this sector exceeds the targets set in GEAR.

The agricultural trade policy vision applies to the whole of South African agriculture, which includes diverse producers and agro-industries. For the purpose of this policy, agriculture includes primary agricultural products and agro-industrial products. The Government's vision is to increase market access for the country's agricultural products, and to see an increase in the supply of highly competitive South African agricultural goods in international and domestic markets.

This will ensure that agriculture makes an optimal contribution to economic growth, food security and job creation, and contributes substantially to the reduction of income disparities.

To achieve this vision, policy must create an environment in which the sector can exploit comparative and competitive advantages and be highly competitive at regional and international level. This will require effective use of the World Trade Organization WTO framework to eliminate market access barriers set up against South African agricultural exports, and to protect local agricultural industries against unfair trade practices.

In the context of this policy paper, static comparative advantage is defined by broad national resource endowment, including soil, climate and water. Dynamic comparative advantage is based on infrastructure, skills and technological innovations built through a policy regime.

On the other hand, competitive advantage is based on individual entrepreneurial ability to capitalise on the existing static and dynamic comparative advantage. Within the agricultural sector, the main objective of trade policy reform is to sustain the integration of the sector in the global economy in order to encourage internal and external competition and allow greater access to markets, technology and capital for South African agriculture.

Effective participation in the WTO to press for global reforms of agricultural trade is critical to the achievement of agricultural trade policy objectives. To achieve this, the Government will pursue the following strategic objectives: The Government will continue to work to ensure that market access barriers are minimised and, where possible, removed effectively and timeously.

South African producers must be protected against unfair trade practices on the part of their competitors. Hence tariffs will be the main instrument for protecting the agricultural sector against unfair competition.

The Government will address these issues by means of three policy instruments, namely trade diplomacy, tariff policy and export promotion. The global trend now is to engage in trade diplomacy to secure improved and equitable market access.

Trade negotiations have increasingly become an important tool for opening up markets for South African agricultural products. Thus trade diplomacy is an integral part of agricultural policy designed to promote competition and efficiency. In the period since April , South Africa has been granted a number of nonreciprocal trade concessions by developed countries and regions. These concessions, though welcome, are of minor significance.

Market access impediments can only be resolved through continuing substantive negotiations. Future negotiations will take place within the following framework: This will influence the SACU agreement currently being renegotiated and any bilateral agreements with countries in the region. The Government will seek other agreements on agriculture, where benefits are expected to be high.

This includes agreements with regional organisations such as Mercosur or the Indian Ocean Rim. Trade diplomacy involves reciprocal obligations.

While seeking improved access to foreign markets for its producers, South Africa will also be required to offer concessions in terms of improved access to its market.

Firstly, agriculture will have to play a significant role in prioritising sought-after partners where negotiated agreements will be necessary. Secondly, complex trade negotiations demand a clear understanding of the interests of the agricultural sector so that appropriate tradeoffs are agreed to. There is a need for a detailed analysis of the threats facing South African producers from international competition and of the impediments to their participation in the global market place.

South Africa's membership of the WTO offers both opportunities and constraints. The Agreement on Agriculture defines commitments for the sector, to be implemented in equal annual instalments over a six-year period starting in These commitments relate to export subsidies, domestic support, and market access. Each member's specific commitments are contained in country schedules appended to the Marrakech Agreement. South Africa's commitments are summarised in Box 2.

South Africa's total export subsidy outlay commitment in was R million which must be reduced to R million by the year With the termination of the General Export Incentive Scheme in July , export subsidies are now zero. In value terms, domestic support commitment was R2. The commitments for and were met. Those products with the highest base rates will decrease by a higher rate than those with more modest base levels, thereby achieving the average reduction required over the implementation period.

The tariffication of import permits was implemented relatively smoothly during , with applied levels of tariff generally lower than the ceilings represented by the commitments.

Fifty-three product categories have minimum market access commitments. In most other cases, the applied rate was below the IQTR thereby obviating the need to administer a quota. Total agricultural imports have grown at a faster rate than agricultural exports in the to period. It is also bound by disciplines placed upon technical barriers to trade and the protection of intellectual property, which aim for greater predictability, fairness and transparency.

South Africa's priority is to ensure compliance with agricultural commitments in the WTO. However, many concessions were made during the Uruguay Round to agricultural lobbies in developed countries, and a relatively high level of support remains. South African producers and exporters are left at a distinct disadvantage as are a number of other less developed agricultural exporting countries. The Government will therefore be seeking the following in the next round of negotiations: The effective use of trade diplomacy requires strategic direction and management, as well as coordination of activities around negotiations to ensure that all are seeking to achieve the same objectives.

To this end, the Government will set up an interdepartmental committee that will forge agreement among the relevant Departments regarding South Africa's priorities in the next round. The NDA will play a leading role in this regard considering the complexity of issues and the likely importance of the sector in the next round.

At sector level, the NDA will effectively deliberate with industry representatives in order to prepare sharply defined objectives and appropriate negotiating strategies. In addition, the NDA will develop mechanisms for monitoring implementation of the agreement by our competitors.

Capacity will be developed to debate and articulate implementation problems faced by South Africa, and recommend the necessary policy changes when required. A strategy for balanced development in the region and a collective approach for seeking market access outside the region, will benefit both South Africa and its neighbours.

Since the April elections, South Africa has therefore been involved in negotiations regarding possible trade agreements within the Southern African region.

A precise definition of the FTA and the process of establishing it will be determined in various rounds of negotiations. The protocol allows for a significant element of asymmetry in trade liberalisation, which means that South Africa will open up its markets at a faster rate than other SADC members.

Thus the formal outcome as well as the timing of the implementation of the obligations will favour the other SADC members. It is expected that the protocol will lead to the removal of customs duties on substantially all current trade within ten years. The most prominent demands to date from SADC partners for greater access to the South African market have focused on industrial products such as clothing and textiles.

However, many SADC countries enjoy comparative advantages in agricultural products. An expected outcome is an increase in imports of primary agricultural products from the region into South Africa, and shifts in production patterns due to comparative advantage. Its provisions in relation to trade in agricultural products are: All products will be included in the phasing out of tariffs and tariff reduction will be on a linear basis.

Specific protocols will be designed for sensitive commodities for specific periods of time. South Africa is also committed to other arrangements in the region. This concession will only be granted for a period of eight years with the consent of all contracting parties. However, this prohibition cannot be used to protect a contracting party's own industry against similar products produced in the common customs area.

Secondly, a number of bilateral agreements have already been concluded in the region. The Government will aim to finalise and implement an agreement with Zimbabwe.

Currently a number of agricultural products can be exported from Zimbabwe to South Africa free of duty subject to an import permit issued by the NDA. Agreements exist with Malawi in terms of which all goods produced or manufactured in Malawi may enter South Africa free of customs duty, and with Mozambique according to which specific products and quantities may be imported into South Africa subject to tariff rebates. In all these agreements the NDA will establish effective mechanisms for monitoring agricultural trade resulting from the agreements and their impact on our sector.

In future, South Africa's trading relationships with the EU will be of great importance to the agricultural sector. South Africa is therefore currently engaged in negotiations with the EU with a view to establishing a free trade agreement. The Government's aim is to negotiate greater access to the EU market and remove the discrimination which South African producers currently face.

It appears that the terms of the agreement, as far as agriculture is concerned, may fall well short of what is satisfactory to the sector. The Government will, however, persist over time in arguing the case for improved access for all agricultural products to EU markets.

To strengthen the diplomatic approach to opening up trade, South Africa joined the Cairns Group in April This is a lobby group consisting of agricultural exporting countries with relatively low levels of domestic protection. It operates on an informal basis without disciplinary procedures or strict rules and takes a consensual approach to decision making.

This disparate group's strength lies in the fact that through collective action it has more influence and impact on agricultural trade issues than its members have individually. Its principal lobbying is directed towards major trading countries with continuing domestic agricultural protection.

The Government's intention is to use this platform to negotiate for further liberalisation of international agricultural markets. Since June , the Geneva-based coordination of activities of the Group have been a useful supplement to South Africa's capacity in this field.

This section has emphasised the importance of trade diplomacy in agricultural policy. The effective use of trade diplomacy requires careful planning not only of the negotiations themselves, but also of the development of specific agricultural subsectors.

Box 4 outlines some basic guidelines that will be followed by the NDA in all negotiations. The particular objectives of each negotiation must be clearly specified but ultimately all negotiations will seek to achieve: In the final analysis, market access is a means to an end, not an end in itself. The impact of an agreement on the RDP objectives of reducing income disparities, creating employment, enhancing growth and improving quality of life must be clearly demonstrated.

Negotiations will be based on: To this end, a study of South African agricultural structure and competitiveness is being carried out in the Minister's Office which will provide a baseline. This study will be broadened to include characteristics of agricultural subsectors and how these change and affect the objectives above.

Such information must be kept in a database and must be updated continuously. Negotiation mandates must make reference to this database and a full report showing how agriculture will change in the course of the implementation of the agreement will be prepared. The Parliamentary Portfolio Committee will also be kept informed of all developments. Tariffs will be applied as an important component of specific strategies for enhancing competitiveness and creating jobs through trade-based mechanisms such as liberalisation.

Two strategic objectives of the agricultural tariff policy are therefore to protect domestic agriculture and to facilitate structural adjustments within the sector. It is not Government policy to use customs tariffs as a means for generating revenue. Various policy instruments will be applied to achieve these objectives. Ordinary duties are limited by negotiated agreements and obligations enshrined in the WTO.

The tariff equivalents set through the process of complying with the WTO commitments represent the maximum level of tariff that can be levied, and these are bound against increase. Agricultural products were tariffed by , thus setting ordinary duties. WTO rules also require that the bound tariff levels be reduced by specified percentages over the periods indicated in the agreements. South Africa's tariff commitments are presented in Box 2.

As a matter of policy, ordinary duties will be constantly reviewed to ensure that tariff levels applied are consistent with the stated policy objectives of making agriculture efficient and competitive. The margins existing between bound and applied are critical if ordinary duties are to be used to influence the restructuring process.

Tariffs will be kept under review to ensure that they are both in line with policy and simpler to administer. In addition, variable import charges can be applied to certain agricultural imports. The variability of such duties has to remain within the bound ceilings. Such a price band scheme can be operated to reduce price variability of certain commodities rather than to increase protection. This is a useful tool for minimising the variability of food prices.

Tariff quotas are used mostly in trade agreements and are therefore country and product specific. Protection against unfair external competition is a major concern of both the Government and the farming sector.

The GATT Agreement, , Article VI makes provision for countries to eliminate injury to local industries demonstrably arising from dumping or subsidies, by imposing antidumping and countervailing duties respectively. Three factors need to be established before such duties are levied: This means the dumping margin must be established 2 that as a result, an industry suffers material injury 3 that injury in 2 is a direct result of the dumping.

The Agreement on Agriculture also makes provision for Governments to impose additional tariffs on products over and above the bound levels, to deal with a surge in imports as a result of a drop in prices if: The critical issue for policy is the use of trade remedies where local industries suffer injury due to unfair practice. The use of these remedies, however, must be within the strict WTO disciplines, which makes them complex mechanisms. Nevertheless, it is policy to strengthen the use of these remedies and reduce reliance on ordinary duties to deal with unfair trade practices.

Agriculture will work with the DTI to design agriculturally defined guidelines on the use of anti-dumping, safeguards and countervailing duties. Such systems will not be burdensome, but predictable and able to respond swiftly to problems that arise. Tariff policies are only as meaningful as the systems put in place to regulate and control the flow of imports. Agricultural trade requires well-qualified and vigilant personnel at the ports of entry.

The two principal problems are underinvoicing and misidentification. Since almost all tariffs are raised on the transaction value of a shipment, underinvoicing is a means of illegally underpaying the required tariff. In both cases, the onus lies with the administration to be vigilant about these problems, and to take severe action.

Better training, more agents, improved incentives, and more efficient recording and checking systems are needed. The Department of Agriculture will work closely with the South African Revenue Services regarding the effective implementation of tariff policy. The importance of export growth to South Africa's development strategy cannot be overemphasised. While an enabling trade-policy environment is a critical element of an export-led growth strategy, the increased level of competition in the global economy demands that Governments design measures to improve the competitive edge of their own producers.

Vital elements of a competitive sector include the transmission of information on subjects ranging from market locations to packaging, labelling and meeting certain technical requirements; the provision of quality control services; and the development of infrastructure.

Although marketing is generally a private-sector function, the Government can also play a key role in facilitation. The main problems faced by exporters are a lack of information and of skills, inadequate access to financing, and poor infrastructure. The Government will therefore use non-trade-distorting mechanisms to assist in providing an environment conducive to export growth. Such measures will be made more effective by: These measures will include: It will, for example, facilitate the sector's participation in trade missions, exhibitions, fairs and other activities that increase international awareness of South African agricultural products.

The Departments of Agriculture will seek partnerships with local authorities to ensure the provision of infrastructure that will lower transaction costs for farmers. This section of the policy paper has outlined important elements of an agricultural trade policy conducive to:. Deregulation has created an incentive structure that will stimulate and reward investment not only in domestic and export markets but also in the ancillary industries.

It is envisaged that the role of the Government will in future pertain particularly to trade diplomacy and to providing an efficient regulatory framework.

The deregulation of domestic agricultural markets and the liberalisation of international agricultural trade have increased, rather than diminished, the need for a framework of standards for the quality and safety of both inputs into crop and animal production and outputs from such production. Effective measures are needed to maintain such standards through, for example, the prevention and control of epidemic diseases and effective inspection and diagnostic services.

In striving to achieve these objectives, the Government wishes to ensure that regulations are not used to erect unfair barriers to those who wish to enter into agricultural production and commerce, and do not, therefore, put limits on competitiveness. Wherever appropriate, the costs of regulation should be borne by those producers who benefit directly from such measures, and the Government will investigate the most cost-effective ways of implementing regulations.

All countries maintain health and sanitary regulations for exports, imports and domestic products. An SPS measure is applied by a country to protect the life or health of people, animals and plants from risk arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, and disease-carrying or disease-causing organisms.

This requires regulation, which includes laws, processing and packing regulations and labelling requirements. Box 5 shows the quality attributes for all food products. Package attributes Package Materials Labelling. The responsibility for setting food safety standards and enforcing them lies with the Department of Agriculture and other Government institutions, particularly the Department of Health.

As a general principle, SPSs will be enforced in accordance with the provisions of the SPS Agreement and other international conventions. South Africa is a signatory to the following agreements: The relevant international standards, guidelines and recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius will be used as quantitative benchmarks.

The NDA will ensure strong participation from the agricultural sector including legal and scientific contributions in the body's international standard-setting activities.

The enforcement of SPS measures will be based on the assessment of risk. Inspection is required in order to establish the processes and production methods used as well as the scientific evidence and prevalence of specific diseases or pests. The inspection function is provided not only to enforce standards for domestically produced commodities destined for exports and local consumption, but also to protect exporters against unfair standards set by importing countries.

Where measures go beyond required SPS standards and are used for protecting industries by the elimination of import competition, they become TBTs. South Africa is a signatory to the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and will use this agreement and its trade remedies as instruments to fight an attempt to restrict its exports through technical barriers. The Department will ensure that standards applied to this country are non-discriminatory and transparent and do not restrict trade more than is necessary.

The Government is responsible for setting standards and it must also take responsibility for an effective inspection system that enforces compliance with a large variety of commodity-specific and country-specific regulations. However, the Government may choose to outsource the delivery of some of the inspection functions where it has confidence in the existing private-sector institutions.

With the increased use of SPS and health standards to restrict trade, and the increase in trade as a result of globalisation, it is now of critical importance to tighten and improve the provision of inspection services.

Several pieces of legislation exist and are administered through different Government Departments and Directorates. A lack of coordination of inspection activities and duplication have reduced efficiency and negatively affected delivery. The removal of interdepartmental duplication in areas such as enforcement, risk management, laboratory services, information systems and communication will lead to a more efficient utilisation of scarce resources.

The purpose of regulation in respect of breeding is primarily to support the industry through steps which encourage investment in improved stock and provide confidence for those engaged in the purchase and sale of breeding stock. A new Animal Improvement Act will remove such distortions, and ensure that importers and breeders' suppliers of genetically superior animals and genetic material are bound by essential standards that will ensure that the standard of genetic material used in South Africa is sufficient to maintain or improve production efficiency.

The Bill proposes to retain certain valuable regulatory aspects of the existing Act, such as the identification and use of genetic material that could be used to the advantage of the national herd; the provision of animal reproduction services; and the establishment and maintenance of animal breeders' societies.

However, the Bill also makes provision for the following important changes:. The benefits to livestock owners of a system of registration, identification and performance monitoring of animals have largely been confined to the white commercial sector.

The costs of this system have increasingly been borne by livestock owners, through registration by breeders' societies, for example, and through charges for the cost of services rendered by the Stud Book and Livestock Improvement Association. The widening of benefits to emergent farmers and stock owners in commercial areas is now a Government priority.

It would be unproductive to expect such an expansion of services to take place on a cost-recovery basis, in the short term at least, but there are considerable benefits to stock owners in having a national system of registration and information on, for example, fertility, milk and wool production and growth. These benefits include better price realisation, more security against stock theft and better take-off management through performance monitoring.

Such a scheme has been initiated in some parts of the country, particularly the Northern Province, and the Government will extend the scheme as rapidly as resources allow. The responsibility for animal welfare services has been transferred from the Department of Justice to the Chief Directorate Veterinary Services of the Department of Agriculture.

This has been done to facilitate the rendering of a humane and effective animal welfare service; provide for the recognition by registration of bona fide welfare organisations; and the setting of minimum standards for services and for the training of inspectors. In terms of policy, the focus will be upon promoting humane behaviour to avoid unnecessary pain and distress to animals, rather than on individual acts of cruelty. Legislation and codes of conduct to be developed in this area will draw on international experience in the field of animal welfare and animal rights, while taking cognisance of the specific challenges raised in South Africa with regard to cultural diversity and poverty.

The agricultural aspects of new legislation will deal with ceremonial or religious slaughter, experimentation with animals, the transport of animals, their treatment at abattoirs and their export for breeding and slaughtering purposes. Regulations on the latter will be aimed at achieving a balance between the enforcement of transport conditions which minimise stress and discomfort, and the legitimate interests of producers attempting to gain access to the lucrative market of the shipment of live animals.

A proposal is also being considered for the establishment of an Animal Welfare Committee to advise the NDA on animal welfare matters. The Constitution provides a framework for the Government's livestock and animal health services.

Animal health control and diseases are listed as a concurrent national and provincial competency. A number of veterinary-related spheres of the Government have also been listed as provincial and local competencies. They include veterinary services excluding regulation of the profession ; facilities for the accommodation, care and burial of animals; the licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the public; municipal abattoirs and pounds.

The Act now needs revision, however, to bring it in line with the Constitution and to clarify provincial and national responsibilities.

It is proposed that under the Animal Health Bill, the NDA be made responsible for the coordination of all aspects of animal disease control and eradication throughout the country. This would involve setting standards for the control of notifiable diseases in animals including game , which are applicable to all the provinces. The legislation will authorise the Government to: Veterinary medicines The supply of safe, productivity-enhancing and internationally acceptable veterinary medicines is essential for the development of the livestock industry.

Currently, there are several restrictions on effective supply, which the Government is seeking to remove. There are many animal treatments or medicines, including certain food supplements, which can be sold by any registered supplier under the Fertilizers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act of Act No.

However, there is also a category of veterinary medicines which cannot be dispensed without professional diagnosis and which is controlled by a separate Medicines Control Act administered by the Department of Health.

The limitations of this system are that conflicts can arise over the appropriate regulatory mechanism to be used; that inadequate attention may be given to the specific issues relating to agriculture in considering the registration of new veterinary medicines and the regulations concerning their use; and that insufficient attention is given to the need to establish a properly regulated distribution network which serves livestock owners in poorer areas.

New legislation, and measures being taken by the NDA, are intended to address these limitations. The Committee will be responsible for making recommendations on registration and regulations which will require the approval of both the Minister of Health and the Minister of Agriculture.

The latter will also make an appointment to the Board of the Authority. As part of the Act to establish the Authority, stock remedies will be removed from the Act, thereby consolidating responsibility for veterinary medicines and providing a scientific expertise and an effective inspectorate through the Authority. The Standing Committee recommendations will be expected to facilitate the accessibility of veterinary medicines though regulations on the licensing of dealers and re-packing of smaller quantities, for example , but the task of developing veterinary medicine services will remain the responsibility of the National Department, Provincial Departments and the industry itself.

Particular attention will be paid by the Government to the training of veterinary assistants so that more diagnostic services are made available and more treatments can be undertaken in rural areas, with refrigeration and other facilities made more widely available by commercial suppliers.

The Government is responsible for all food and food-related safety, SPS quality control measures. However, VPH also covers milk hygiene which falls under the Department of Health and local authority jurisdiction as well as eggs and fish which lack a proper VPH policy framework at present.

National food safety legislation will: The Government would like to change the perception that this is a policing function into an awareness that it is a facilitating service for the industry. Legislation on plants, seeds, plant protection and plant quality control is necessary for both farmers and consumers, and is becoming increasingly important in the field of international trade where SPS and TBT measures, if inadequately managed, can seriously jeopardise export prospects.

In the area of product standards, the Government has already delegated certain functions to industry-based organisations so that they will carry out some of the tasks of regulation. The underlining principles will be the integrity of assignees in both the domestic and international arenas; the need for an efficient and economic delivery system; and transparency and other criteria that may emanate from South Africa's membership of conventions. To improve efficiency and sustainability of these services the Government will charge fees to those who benefit from them.

Most of the legislation pertaining to food safety, standards and technical inspection for SPS and TBT, will be consolidated and amended according to objectives and principles that govern the inspection agency. Considerable uncertainty and risk is attached to farming. Agriculture in South Africa is inherently more risky than in many other countries because of low average rainfall, and the wide variability in rainfall both between and within seasons in most parts of the country.

In addition to the risks associated with drought, farmers are also confronted by a range of other hazards, including hail, fire, pests and diseases. In the past farmers have relied upon Government relief programmes as a means of coping with these risks, especially drought.

These programmes have, amongst others, reduced farmers' willingness to take other measures to avoid risks, as all such measures entailed costs. Farmers have often also been encouraged to use technologies which are unsuited to areas prone to drought, and harmful to the environment in bad years, in the expectation that they would receive assistance in the event of their crops failing. The Government will no longer provide drought relief as in the past. Instead, it will promote other options for reducing risk.

All risk-reducing measures entail costs, which can be borne either by farmers or by the Government. Whereas in the past there has been a strong reliance on the state, the role of the Government will now be to reinforce farmers' ability to deal with risk in a sustainable manner. This will reduce dependency and environmentally damaging cropping and other land-use practices. Thus the overall change in the orientation of policy will put the responsibility of coping with drought back into the normal production system.

This will cause farmers to exercise greater prudence and make themselves less vulnerable to the effects of drought. The role of the Government is to assist farmers' own efforts to cope with various risks and, where possible, to take steps to reduce the likelihood of risk. This involves four separate tasks: Research will be aimed at supporting the development of more robust technologies as well as preventative measures to reduce risk.

Farmers do not always choose less risky technologies, as has been proved by the widespread replacement of robust food crops such as sorghum and millet by maize. The Government will therefore support research to improve the yield and robustness of all staple-food crops, rather than simply of those requiring relatively high external inputs. The reorientation of research in South Africa is aimed at, amongst others, understanding the constraints and risks faced by the most vulnerable farmers, and at strengthening their ability to deal with risk in a variety of ways.

This will include research and extension regarding a broad range of techniques, including low-input systems to reduce vulnerability, water harvesting, fodder enhancement, and farming systems more generally. Diversification of production systems as well as sources of income for the farm household will reduce risk levels.

Risk-minimising measures will include minor steps such as staggering the planting dates of the same crop to reduce the liability of complete crop failure due to the pattern of intra-seasonal rainfall, and major initiatives such as developing a range of crops, livestock and off-farm activities.

Research and extension will support a wide variety of possibilities, depending on farm circumstances. The Government has the responsibility and the opportunity of greatly improving farmers' access to information, for example information on market trends and advances in research, as well as improved climate forecasts, and also of ensuring that the information is accurate and useful. The NDA and provincial departments will also play a major role in the development of data collection, monitoring and assessment measures as part of a national early-warning system for disaster management under the Department of Constitutional Development.

Government measures to control epidemic diseases which threaten farm livelihoods were discussed in the previous section. As far as migratory pests are concerned, the Government is principally concerned with flying locusts and swarms of redbilled quelea. The Government cooperates with local communities in locust-breeding areas to control this pest. Some 40 million labour days were financed in to assist in a campaign which prevented the depletion of some 9 million tons of pasture.

The Government will continue controlling quelea swarms with explosives and chemical treatments but, as in the case of locust control, attention will increasingly be paid to establishing new SADC-wide instruments now that the functions of the SARCCUS subcommittee on migratory pests have been transferred to this larger organisation.

Agricultural taxation compensates farmers to some extent for the measures they take to reduce the impact of disasters on farm income. Currently, special tax measures are available to farmers in the following cases:.

Firstly, the Income Tax Act of stipulates that where a farmer has sold livestock on account of drought, stock disease or damage to grazing by fire or plague, and purchases replacement stock within four years, such purchases may be counted as a deduction in the year of purchase.

The effect is to smooth taxable income. Secondly, the Tax Act stipulates that if a farmer disposes of livestock due to drought, and deposits the proceeds with the Land Bank, the deposit will not be deemed as part of the gross revenue for the year.

Thirdly, the Act allows deductions for certain drought-related expenditures. Fourthly, the Act makes provision for certain expenditures which relate to income not capital , such as the allowance for interest on loans or bank drafts to be deductible from income.

These four provisions go some way towards assisting farmers in reducing their vulnerability to droughts. However, it is notable that livestock farmers rather than cultivators receive much greater benefits, even though dryland crop farmers are more vulnerable to drought. One option would therefore be to extend the provisions to all tax-paying farmers, so that they may save in good years as a deduction before the estimation and taxation of total revenue, and will be taxed in the year in which such savings are drawn down when income will be lower, so that average long-term taxation is reduced a little on average, but the main effect is delayed taxation.

The Working Group on Drought and Disaster Management, established by the Minister in , claims that such a measure is likely to have two additional effects that would probably raise overall taxation.

Firstly, it is likely that more farmers will register for taxation thereby broadening the potential revenue base. Secondly, there will be a strong incentive for farmers to save and eventually pay some tax rather than reduce tax liability through the purchase of unnecessary or expensive equipment and vehicles.

The Group also says that there would be no need for the Government to establish and manage a stabilisation fund, although most funds are set up in this way such as the Canadian Net Income Stabilisation Account. For insurers, covering drought damages also requires exceptionally high standards of assessment and inspection, resulting in high operating and administration costs.

As for farmers, in the past particularly there was a feeling that drought insurance was overpriced given the fact that the state would generally be expected to respond to their demands in times of extreme stress. However, the removal of ad hoc Government assistance alone will not cause a large number of farmers to take out policies from private-sector insurance companies based purely on commercial principles.

In these circumstances the Working Group feels that it should be considered providing a targeted subsidy on insurance premiums to smaller farmers, especially those unable to benefit from any tax measures due to relatively low incomes.

South Africa's earlier attempt to broaden access to drought-inclusive crop insurance was not particularly successful, however. In the first year of its operation, around 12 policies were issued, with uptake being particularly poor in high-rainfall areas.

The number of subscribers dropped every year after that. The scheme carried on for several more years without the Government's involvement, and then ceased altogether. The major problem with the scheme was the low participation rate, which apparently resulted from an inadequately developed pricing structure, an insufficient subsidy and, as mentioned above, the disincentive posed by the existence of other avenues for getting drought assistance from the NDA.

If the Government is to consider attempting anew some form of subsidised, drought-inclusive insurance scheme, it must be mindful of South Africa's own past experience, as well as that of other countries where similar schemes have been attempted with generally disappointing results. Of greatest importance is that the participation rate must be significant, so that the risk-pooling function of the scheme can be fully realised.

An effective research system is an essential component of any country's agricultural sector. This record of success is, however, the result of research aimed almost exclusively at the requirements of large-scale white farmers. Very little effective research has been directed towards small scale, resource-poor producers in the black communities. Furthermore, the research system has operated in an environment in which subsidies encouraged the development of capital-intensive, high-input farming.

The Government will ensure that public spending in research is geared towards investigating methods to attain broad policy objectives. In general, agricultural research must lead to the development and sustained utilisation of agricultural science capacity to increase the biological potential of plants and animals, and to improve the economic management and use of natural and human resources on which the realisation of this biological potential depends.

While agricultural research systems in South Africa have, to some extent, been successful in achieving this, the challenge is to make the production technologies that are the output of such research, applicable to the needs and resources of small scale, disadvantaged farmers.

Within the context of overall agricultural policy in this document, a number of challenges have been raised. An effective research system is critical in that it must find ways for the Government to cope with these challenges. It is Government policy to strengthen the linkages between research and agricultural policy. The following illustrates how research is expected to link up with the main elements of agricultural policy:. Given the Government's export-oriented growth strategy, agricultural research can play a major role in opening up new opportunities through research on non-traditional crops.

It can lead to improved technology which will enable us to exploit comparative and competitive advantages. Thus, in research, attention must be paid to trade-related product development which ranges from product improvement, improving durability either for travel or for shelving, to product presentation and packaging. Such research is critical to increasing the volume and value of trade in agricultural commodities. To this end the research system must be strongly linked to technology dissemination, which will have to move away from simple message systems to participatory approaches.

Against this background, the reform of agricultural research policy will be aimed at: Until , most research was done within the Department of Agriculture's 11 institutes to the benefit of white farmers.

These well-funded and well-maintained research facilities were then handed over to the Agricultural Research Council ARC. The ARC has focused almost entirely on managing its own capacity, organised into some 16 research institutes, most of which do research on commodities. Given the strong support available to researchers at universities, for example their access to social science departments and their ability to link research to training, a strong case can be made out for increasing the relative share of funding going to universities.

Much of the research in the private sector is near-market or development work determined with the help of farmers and their associations. In the past, the research was almost entirely focused on the commercial sector although some results have been useful to small-farmers.

The sugar industry, for example, finances all its own research and is developing a strong profile among smallholder producers. Private-sector research employs some scientists or technologists.

Numerous reviews of South Africa's agricultural research systems have identified the need to set research priorities to ensure that public expenditure in research helps the Government to meet its objectives.

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