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Advice on practical solutions to technical challenges and unmet needs that are encountered in the laboratory practice. A place to share information on topics such as advice, experience, and resources for mentoring, training, teaching, having visitors in your laboratory, and contact with others in the field. This section will include contributions from forward-thinking individuals in the field who wish to share their vision, intuitions, experience, and perceptions with JALM readers and the laboratory medicine field.

Submissions to Laboratory Reflections are limited to words and should not include an abstract. The references are limited to 5, and only 1 table or figure is permitted. Supplemental data are not permitted. This section celebrates the important moments and individuals note-worthy to the field of clinical chemistry.

Letters are submitted directly from authors and can be used to report an observation or to discuss a previously published original Article.

Letters in response to papers other than Articles or Case Reports will not be considered for publication. Letters report observations on interferences, suggestions to improve test performance, or other observations that are of importance to the wider audience. A Reply to a Letter may also be solicited by the editors.

The one figure or table provided should be concise and should not be multipart i. A Letter to the Editor is limited to words. It should not include an abstract. Supplemental data are not permitted for Letters to the Editor. A Reply is limited to words. Supplemental data are not permitted for Replies. Letters to the Editor and Replies should list no more than 8 authors, with any additional contributors listed in the Acknowledgments.

In some instances, editors may request that a submission of another article type to JALM be decreased to meet the requirements of a Letter to the Editor. Mini-Reviews may be submitted directly by authors or invited by the journal. Mini-Reviews are intended to provide a general overview of a topic.

Basic information is provided, along with selected references that can aid the reader in obtaining additional information about the subject. The use of illustrative figures or tables is encouraged. A Mini-Review article should consist of a structured abstract limited to words with headings of Background, Content, and Summary. The text should not exceed 3, words. Mini-Reviews should list no more than 5 authors, with any additional contributors listed in the Acknowledgments. They present the belief or personal view of the author s on a specific topic.

Unlike Editorials and Letters to the Editor, Opinion articles do not comment on, or refer to, specific papers published in this or any other journal. An Opinion should not include an abstract and is limited to 1, words, 15 references, 1 table or figure, and no more than 5 authors.

Supplemental data are not permitted for Opinions. These articles are typically invited submissions from experts in a selected discipline and provide different viewpoints on a topic that may be controversial, lacks consensus in the scientific community, or may be of high public interest.

The manuscript is limited to 1, words, 15 references, and 1 table or figure. Reviews are intended to provide comprehensive coverage of a topic, including background clinical or analytical information, the relevance and importance of the subject matter, and potential future directions. A Review article should consist of a structured abstract with headings of Background, Content, and Summary limited to words. The text should not exceed 5, words. Exceptions to the reference count may be made at the discretion of the editor.

Supplemental data are encouraged for Review articles. Reviews should list no more than 15 authors, with any additional contributors listed in the Acknowledgments. Special Reports may be submitted directly by authors or invited by the journal. The types of papers that would be considered include consensus reports, guideline development, position statements, or evidence-based recommendations on test utilization or quality specifications.

The editors may also decide to classify other miscellaneous submissions under this heading. A Special Report should consist of a structured or unstructured abstract limited to words. The main text should be no more than 5, words. Supplemental data are permitted for Special Reports. Special Reports should list no more than 20 authors, with any additional contributors listed in the Acknowledgments.

For more information or to request open access publication, contact the Editorial Office at jalm aacc. All papers are made open access one year after publication. Articles are grouped in the journal according to subject. Upon submission, authors are required to select the journal category that best describes their manuscript from the list indicated below:.

Structured abstracts should be formatted to include separate headings of: For Mini-Review and Review articles the headings should be: Background, Content, and Summary. Both structured and unstructured abstracts are subject to a limit of words. In addition to appearing at the beginning of the manuscript, abstracts must be uploaded to the abstract field of the Manuscript Metadata page online upon submission.

Article , Review , Mini-Review , and Focused Report submissions should include an Impact Statement in the main manuscript, immediately following the Abstract. The Impact Statement should be no more than words and should address the following:. The body of the manuscript should be written as concisely as possible and must not exceed the manuscript category word limits described herein.

All pages must be double-spaced and all lines numbered. The body of the paper should include: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion. Full corporate names of manufacturers of materials should be utilized omit Inc.

After the first mention, use a shorter name e. Reporting of Concentration Units: Use of human subjects requires a statement in the text indicating whether the procedures followed were approved by your institution's responsible committee Institutional Review Board or Ethics Committee or were in accordance with the current revision of the Helsinki Declaration and whether subjects gave informed consent.

Accession numbers for data sets or sequence reads that have been deposited in a public database should be provided in the Materials and Methods section of the text. Where applicable, a ClinicalTrials. If you include research funding in the Acknowledgment, you must specify which author or authors received the funding or if the funding was given to the group or institution. Editorial staff will transfer this information to the disclosure section prior to publication if the paper is accepted.

References should appear in a separate section directly following the body of the manuscript. In-text citations should correspond to the numbered references in this list and should be formatted as follows: Abstract and supplement numbers should be provided, if applicable.

Personal communications should also be listed parenthetically and should contain the first initial and last name of the contact as well as the month and year of the communication. A copy of written permission from the contact to use the communication must also be provided. Published manuscripts and manuscripts that have been accepted and are pending publication should be cited in the reference list. Note that unpublished material must be published, at least online, by the time of publication of the citing article.

In-press references cited in the reference list must be accompanied by a copy of the cited manuscript and a letter of acceptance, or a complete author proof from the publisher. These resources should be uploaded as supplemental data along with the manuscript and other print materials. The submission system will extract the references from the submitted MS Word document. This linking option allows for the checking of the correct formatting and the accuracy of the citations. Correct linking of the references depends on strict adherence to Journal style as indicated.

JALM style is available in the Endnote reference formatting program. In particular, journal names may not be abbreviated correctly in the output. If you have used PubMed for journal name abbreviations, it is recommended that you take the following steps:.

Refer to the Endnote Help Center for further assistance. A case of pseudoparaproteinemia on capillary zone electrophoresis caused by geloplasma. Affinity binding assay of glycohemoglobin by two-dimensional centrifugation referenced to hemoglobin Alc. Quantification of rhesus monkey albumin with assays for human microalbumin [Abstract].

New biochemical marker for bone disease: Davey L, Naidoo L. Urinary screen for acetaminophen paracetamol in the presence of N-acetylcysteine [Letter]. Rifai N, Warnick GR. Lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics. Immunonephelometric measurement of vitamin D binding protein [MAppSci thesis]. University of Technology, PCR-based methods for the enrichment of minority alleles and mutations. Lipids, risk factors and ischaemic heart disease.

American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Tables are considered text. They should appear embedded as part of the submission directly following the reference section. Each table should appear on an individual page.

Manuscripts will be returned to authors if the tables are uploaded as separate table files. Manuscripts will not be returned for this reason if tables have been uploaded as supplemental data or if they are to be considered figures, in the special circumstances described below.

Each table should be clearly labeled and numbered consecutively with Arabic numerals Table 1, Table 2, etc. The abbreviations used must be defined. Tables should not be divided into parts.

Separate parts Table 1A, Table 1B, etc. Each column of an individual table must have a heading and be clearly defined. Indicate explanatory footnotes with superscript lowercase italic letters in alphabetical order. Tables will be converted into a standard format for publication.

Large or complex tables or tables that include graphic elements should be submitted as figures or as supplemental data for online publication only. If a table has been published previously, acknowledge the original source in the table caption. You must obtain written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the table and upload this permission as supplemental data. Please specify whether the table has been exactly reproduced or adapted from the original source, and provide a copy of the original table if it has been adapted.

Even if the table has been modified, it may still require a permission. Any costs associated with table permissions will be borne by the author. Contact the editorial office at jalm aacc. Figure captions and sub-captions must be listed together on an individual page directly following the tables or the references if the submission does not include tables.

Each figure requires a figure caption and should be clearly labeled Figure 1, Figure 2, etc. Multi-panel figures and figures with parts a, b, c, etc. If a figure has been published previously, acknowledge the original source in the figure caption. You must obtain written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the figure and upload this permission as supplemental data.

Please specify whether the figure has been exactly reproduced or adapted from the original source, and provide a copy of the original figure if it has been adapted. Even if the figure has been modified, it may still require a permission. Any costs associated with figure permissions will be borne by the author. All figures must be uploaded separately as image files in Tagged Image File Format.

Figures are limited to 4 panels or parts per figure. Each image should have a resolution of dots-per-inch dpi. The submission system is designed to retrieve the manuscript file and separate image file s and combine or merge the files into an individual Portable Document Format. PDF for reviewing purposes. It is the responsibility of the author to verify the quality of the image file s after the conversion to PDF. It may be necessary to alter the individual image file s to ensure the content is not lost or misconstrued in the merged PDF.

Submissions will be returned to authors if the figures are embedded within the manuscript file and not uploaded separately or if the figures have become illegible in the merged PDF.

Do not place unnecessary graphics, such as borders, in or around your figure. Pay particular attention to the quality of the lines, symbols, and patterns. Published figures are reduced to 1 column 85mm or 2 columns mm in width. If, at that width, the figure symbols or lettering are not clear, you will need to increase the font size.

Letters should be points when reduced, and subscripts no less than 6 points. Initial capitals and lower case letters and a medium not bold sans serif font are required. The x-axis and y-axis should be clearly labeled, and the units of measurements given.

This includes using decimal points instead of commas, italicizing species or gene symbols, and using U. Figures or tables too large for print, manuscript material that exceeds the limitation for the specific submission type, or appendices should be submitted for online publication only.

These files should be marked and uploaded separately as supplemental files during submission and should be referenced within the text as supplemental data i. Supplemental files must be labeled consecutively i. When labeling your files and referencing them within the main text, please keep in mind the preferred naming conventions for supplements.

If all supplemental materials are contained in a single file, that file should be referred to as "Supplemental Data. Do not include the supplemental captions in your manuscript file.

Please be advised, supplemental data are permitted for Article, Mini-Review, Review, and Special Report submissions only. Manuscripts of all other types with supplemental data will be returned to authors.

If accepted and posted online, the supplemental data will be referenced in the text of the print article directing readers to the URL of the website. Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view these files and is available at no cost.

Click the following link to download: For help during regular business hours, contact JALM via e-mail at jalm aacc. Please see the Registration FAQ for more extensive help. Before submitting a manuscript or review, you must register with our manuscript submission and tracking system.

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Most browsers will allow the user to manually alter the cookie settings from the Tools or Internet Options bar. The Area of Expertise list was developed to help editors choose reviewers who possess specific knowledge in a given area. Our tracking system has been set to allow this page to appearas a gentle reminderuntil the reviewer has selected at least one item on the list.

As soon as the reviewer selects a topic and saves it, it will no longer appear. Changing these areas of expertise or adding more detailed information can be accomplished by simply logging into http: On the lower right side of the page, the user will find "Expertise Terms: Receiving a conversion error means that conversion of your manuscript to PDF format has failed.

Invalid file types are the most common cause of conversion failure. Be sure your file names end with extensions appropriate to the file type i. Mac computers generally leave off the file type extension and it must be added manually. Formats that are not supported include the following: If any of these have been used to create your file, you will need to convert the file to an acceptable file format for submission in order for the files to convert properly.

Large or numerous files may slow the conversion process of submission, sometimes resulting in a system "time out" or conversion failure. It may be appropriate to upload and wait for the conversion of an individual file before proceeding with the remaining files. Generally most files become unwieldy when they pass the 1 MB megabyte mark. Empty HTML references field: You may find that your HTML references section is empty.

This can be remedied by including the heading "References" before the references section in your paper. HTML references cannot be edited directly; any changes must be made by re-uploading your manuscript file during the proofing stage. The Journal Portal is tool for authors developed to provide another opportunity for publication.

Authors of a manuscript rejected by Clinical Chemistry will receive a decision email with detailed instructions on how to transfer their paper to JALM. Should the author choose to do so, they may revise their manuscript addressing any Clinical Chemistry reviewer comments and transfer their paper and blinded reviews if there are any to JALM as detailed in the instructions provided in the email. Authors will have 30 days to complete the transfer before the portal closes for each manuscript. Authors will have the opportunity, and are encouraged, to edit any part of the submission disclosures, contributions, author list, abstract, etc.

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Only blinded reviews for the author are transferred. The transfer of a paper to JALM does not guarantee review. Based on editorial judgment, some submissions may be rejected initially without external review. Upon acceptance, all authors are required to read and sign the Copyright Transfer Agreement. Each author will be invited via e-mail to sign a statement confirming that the manuscript does not contain material for which publication would violate any copyright or other personal or proprietary right of any person or entity.

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Please include the corresponding author's e-mail address and the manuscript number on all correspondence. Skip to main content. Submissions of the following nature are welcomed: Case reports Basic materials or principles Analytical techniques Molecular diagnostics Test utilization or testing-related health or financial outcomes Instrumentation Data processing Statistical analyses of data Clinical investigations in which laboratory testing has played a major role Laboratory animal studies of chemically oriented problems of human disease Contributions should consist of subject matter that is original and significantly advances the state of knowledge of laboratory medicine, and conclusions that are justified from the design of the experiments and the data presented.

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The corresponding author is responsible for conveying this information to all parties. Originality Manuscripts must contain original material that is not already available elsewhere. Author Contribution Requirements Manuscripts are considered for publication with the understanding of the following: Each listed author must meet the following criteria: Readers benefit from transparency about the involvement of professional writers and editors.

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Duplicate Publications Manuscripts that have substantial overlap with a manuscript that has already been published, without proper citation. Preprints A paper will not be considered for publication in JALM if a version of the manuscript has previously been made publicly available, including any posting on a preprint server or other repository.

Document the analytical advantages of the new or modified method over existing methods. Standard deviations of repeated points may be included. For acceptable alternatives that include only one run per day, see the cited document. Bioanalytical Method Evaluation, Linnet K, Boyd JC.

Selection and analytical evaluation of methods — with statistical techniques. User evaluation of precision performance of clinical chemistry devices. Theory, practice and correlation, 2nd ed. Selection and evaluation of methods. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry, 2nd ed. Necessary sample size for method comparison studies based on regression analysis.

Evaluation of regression procedures for methods comparison studies. General Deming regression for estimating systematic bias and its confidence interval in method-comparison studies. Executable program for general Deming regression calculations and graphics.

Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Commentary on quantifying agreement between two methods of measurement. Partly nonparametric approach for determining the limit of detection. Analytical performance characteristics should be judged against objective quality specifications. Establishment and use of reference values. Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry, 4th ed. Ion Suppression in Mass Spectrometry.

Statistics Describe statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the reported results. On P values and confidence intervals why can't we P with more confidence? Checklist for the Description of Sequence Variants at the Human Genome Variation Society Requirements for the description of sequence variants can be found at http: Specify spectrum of evaluated patients age and sex distributions, eligibility criteria, and summary of symptoms or disease stage.

Analyze pertinent subgroups of subjects e. Avoid verification bias usually by application of a "gold-standard" test to all subjects rather than to a clinically selected subset. Categorize test results and patients independently to avoid reviewer bias usually by performance of tests with blinding to patient information and vice versa.

Indicate the number of indeterminate test results and their use if any in further data analysis. Provide laboratory data on analytical imprecision of the test usually day-to-day CV at two or more concentrations or reproducibility of observer interpretation e.

Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: An updated list of essential items for reporting diagnostic accuracy studies. Reporting of precision of estimates for diagnostic accuracy: Receiver-operating characteristic ROC plots: Note that in Figs. The correct dual labeling of the x-axis solves the problem of whether to plot specificity or 1 - specificity on the x-axis.

On the use and computation of likelihood ratios in Clinical Chemistry. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ;9: Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. Br Med J ; Recommended nomenclature should be used, including: The most common errors in performing and reporting qPCR data include: Not enough information for others to replicate the experiment, including how the nucleic acid was prepared, reverse transcribed, and amplified.

Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member countries. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution. Much of this growth is happening in developing countries in Asia, with much smaller amounts of growth in Africa.

Tillage is the practice of breaking up the soil with tools such as the plow or harrow to prepare for planting, for nutrient incorporation, or for pest control. Tillage varies in intensity from conventional to no-till. It may improve productivity by warming the soil, incorporating fertilizer and controlling weeds, but also renders soil more prone to erosion, triggers the decomposition of organic matter releasing CO 2 , and reduces the abundance and diversity of soil organisms.

Pest control includes the management of weeds, insects , mites , and diseases. Chemical pesticides , biological biocontrol , mechanical tillage , and cultural practices are used. Cultural practices include crop rotation, culling , cover crops , intercropping, composting , avoidance, and resistance. Integrated pest management attempts to use all of these methods to keep pest populations below the number which would cause economic loss, and recommends pesticides as a last resort.

Nutrient management includes both the source of nutrient inputs for crop and livestock production, and the method of utilization of manure produced by livestock. Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers, manure, green manure , compost and minerals.

Manure is used either by holding livestock where the feed crop is growing, such as in managed intensive rotational grazing, or by spreading either dry or liquid formulations of manure on cropland or pastures.

Water management is needed where rainfall is insufficient or variable, which occurs to some degree in most regions of the world. In other areas such as the Great Plains in the U. Payment for ecosystem services is a method of providing additional incentives to encourage farmers to conserve some aspects of the environment.

Measures might include paying for reforestation upstream of a city, to improve the supply of fresh water. Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years, since the beginning of civilization. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic make-up of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans, for example, larger fruits or seeds, drought-tolerance, or resistance to pests.

Significant advances in plant breeding ensued after the work of geneticist Gregor Mendel. His work on dominant and recessive alleles , although initially largely ignored for almost 50 years, gave plant breeders a better understanding of genetics and breeding techniques. Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits, self-pollination and cross-pollination , and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism.

Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance , eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. Plant selection and breeding in the s and s improved pasture grasses and clover in New Zealand. Extensive X-ray and ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts i. The Green Revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to sharply increase yield by creating "high-yielding varieties".

For example, average yields of corn maize in the US have increased from around 2. Variations in yields are due mainly to variation in climate, genetics, and the level of intensive farming techniques use of fertilizers, chemical pest control, growth control to avoid lodging. Genetically modified organisms GMO are organisms whose genetic material has been altered by genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology.

Genetic engineering has expanded the genes available to breeders to utilize in creating desired germlines for new crops. Increased durability, nutritional content, insect and virus resistance and herbicide tolerance are a few of the attributes bred into crops through genetic engineering. Numerous countries have placed restrictions on the production, import or use of GMO foods and crops. Herbicide-resistant seed has a gene implanted into its genome that allows the plants to tolerate exposure to herbicides, including glyphosate.

These seeds allow the farmer to grow a crop that can be sprayed with herbicides to control weeds without harming the resistant crop. Herbicide-tolerant crops are used by farmers worldwide.

In some areas glyphosate resistant weeds have developed, causing farmers to switch to other herbicides. Other GMO crops used by growers include insect-resistant crops, which have a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Bt , which produces a toxin specific to insects. These crops resist damage by insects. In some cases, wild species are the primary source of resistance traits; some tomato cultivars that have gained resistance to at least 19 diseases did so through crossing with wild populations of tomatoes.

Agriculture imposes multiple external costs upon society through effects such as pesticide damage to nature especially herbicides and insecticides , nutrient runoff, excessive water usage, and loss of natural environment. Neither included subsidies in their analysis, but they noted that subsidies also influence the cost of agriculture to society.

Agriculture seeks to increase yield and to reduce costs. Yield increases with inputs such as fertilisers and removal of pathogens, predators, and competitors such as weeds. Costs decrease with increasing scale of farm units, such as making fields larger; this means removing hedges , ditches and other areas of habitat.

Pesticides kill insects, plants and fungi. These and other measures have cut biodiversity to very low levels on intensively farmed land. In , the International Resource Panel of the United Nations Environment Programme assessed the environmental impacts of consumption and production. It found that agriculture and food consumption are two of the most important drivers of environmental pressures, particularly habitat change, climate change, water use and toxic emissions.

Agriculture is the main source of toxins released into the environment, including insecticides, especially those used on cotton. This includes GHGs emitted by the use of inorganic fertilisers agro-chemical pesticides and herbicides; GHG emissions resulting from production of these inputs are included in industrial emissions ; and fossil fuel-energy inputs.

A senior UN official and co-author of a UN report detailing this problem, Henning Steinfeld, said "Livestock are one of the most significant contributors to today's most serious environmental problems".

By comparison, all transportation emits Furthermore, the UNEP states that " methane emissions from global livestock are projected to increase by 60 per cent by under current practices and consumption patterns. Land transformation, the use of land to yield goods and services, is the most substantial way humans alter the Earth's ecosystems, and is considered the driving force in the loss of biodiversity. Degradation can be deforestation, desertification , soil erosion , mineral depletion, or chemical degradation acidification and salinization.

Eutrophication , excessive nutrients in aquatic ecosystems resulting in algal blooms and anoxia , leads to fish kills , loss of biodiversity, and renders water unfit for drinking and other industrial uses. Excessive fertilization and manure application to cropland, as well as high livestock stocking densities cause nutrient mainly nitrogen and phosphorus runoff and leaching from agricultural land.

These nutrients are major nonpoint pollutants contributing to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and pollution of groundwater, with harmful effects on human populations. It is long known that aquifers in areas as diverse as northern China, the Upper Ganges and the western US are being depleted, and new research extends these problems to aquifers in Iran, Mexico and Saudi Arabia.

Pesticide use has increased since to 2. An alternative argument is that the way to "save the environment" and prevent famine is by using pesticides and intensive high yield farming, a view exemplified by a quote heading the Center for Global Food Issues website: Global warming and agriculture are interrelated on a global scale.

Global warming affects agriculture through changes in average temperatures , rainfall , and weather extremes like storms and heat waves ; changes in pests and diseases; changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and ground-level ozone concentrations; changes in the nutritional quality of some foods; [] and changes in sea level.

Animal husbandry is also responsible for greenhouse gas production of CO 2 and a percentage of the world's methane, and future land infertility, and the displacement of wildlife.

Agriculture contributes to climate change by anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forest for agricultural use.

Current farming methods have resulted in over-stretched water resources, high levels of erosion and reduced soil fertility. There is not enough water to continue farming using current practices; therefore how critical water, land, and ecosystem resources are used to boost crop yields must be reconsidered. A solution would be to give value to ecosystems, recognizing environmental and livelihood tradeoffs, and balancing the rights of a variety of users and interests.

Technological advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to make farming more sustainable. Since the s, agricultural productivity has increased dramatically, due largely to the increased use of energy-intensive mechanization, fertilizers and pesticides.

The vast majority of this energy input comes from fossil fuel sources. Heavy reliance on petrochemicals has raised concerns that oil shortages could increase costs and reduce agricultural output.

Industrialized agriculture depends on fossil fuels in two fundamental ways: Direct consumption includes the use of lubricants and fuels to operate farm vehicles and machinery. Indirect consumption includes the manufacture of fertilizers, pesticides, and farm machinery. Direct and indirect energy consumption by U. Agriculture accounts for less than one-fifth of food system energy use in the US.

Agricultural economics refers to economics as it relates to the "production, distribution and consumption of [agricultural] goods and services". This is related to the greater efficiency of farming, combined with the increased level of value addition e.

Market concentration has increased in the sector as well, and although the total effect of the increased market concentration is likely increased efficiency, the changes redistribute economic surplus from producers farmers and consumers, and may have negative implications for rural communities.

National government policies can significantly change the economic marketplace for agricultural products, in the form of taxation, subsidies , tariffs and other measures. In the s, non-subsidized farmers in developing countries experienced adverse effects from national policies that created artificially low global prices for farm products.

Between the mids and the early s, several international agreements limited agricultural tariffs, subsidies and other trade restrictions. However, as of [update] , there was still a significant amount of policy-driven distortion in global agricultural product prices. The three agricultural products with the greatest amount of trade distortion were sugar, milk and rice, mainly due to taxation. Among the oilseeds , sesame had the greatest amount of taxation, but overall, feed grains and oilseeds had much lower levels of taxation than livestock products.

Since the s, policy-driven distortions have seen a greater decrease among livestock products than crops during the worldwide reforms in agricultural policy. Commodities are generally reported by production quantities, such as volume, number or weight.

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. It covers topics such as agronomy, plant breeding and genetics, plant pathology , crop modelling, soil science, entomology , production techniques and improvement, study of pests and their management, and study of adverse environmental effects such as soil degradation, waste management , and bioremediation.

The scientific study of agriculture began in the 18th century, when Johann Friedrich Mayer conducted experiments on the use of gypsum hydrated calcium sulphate as a fertilizer. Agricultural policy is the set of government decisions and actions relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.

Governments usually implement agricultural policies with the goal of achieving a specific outcome in the domestic agricultural product markets. Some overarching themes include risk management and adjustment including policies related to climate change, food safety and natural disasters , economic stability including policies related to taxes , natural resources and environmental sustainability especially water policy , research and development, and market access for domestic commodities including relations with global organizations and agreements with other countries.

Policy programs can range from financial programs, such as subsidies, to encouraging producers to enroll in voluntary quality assurance programs. There are many influences on the creation of agricultural policy, including consumers, agribusiness, trade lobbies and other groups. Agribusiness interests hold a large amount of influence over policy making, in the form of lobbying and campaign contributions. Political action groups, including those interested in environmental issues and labor unions , also provide influence, as do lobbying organizations representing individual agricultural commodities.

Samuel Jutzi, director of FAO's animal production and health division, states that lobbying by large corporations has stopped reforms that would improve human health and the environment. For example, proposals in for a voluntary code of conduct for the livestock industry that would have provided incentives for improving standards for health, and environmental regulations, such as the number of animals an area of land can support without long-term damage, were successfully defeated due to large food company pressure.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 14 September For other uses, see Farming disambiguation. Government ministries Universities and colleges. Agriculture by country companies Biotechnology Livestock Meat industry Poultry farming. Agricultural safety and health. List of countries by GDP sector composition. List of most important agricultural crops worldwide. Countries by agricultural output in billions in USD.

Countries by agricultural output in millions in constant USD and exchange rates. Livestock and Animal husbandry.

List of domesticated animals. Tillage , Crop rotation , and Irrigation. Genetically modified food , Genetically modified crops , Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms , and Genetically modified food controversies.

Environmental issues with agriculture. Environmental impact of irrigation. Environmental impact of pesticides. Climate change and agriculture. List of sustainable agriculture topics.

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