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Seven themes were identified in the data: And maybe we would learn something new and exciting as a side effect. The most popular racetams are Aniracetam, Piracetam, Oxiracetam, and Phenylpiracetam. Japan is a perfect case study. You need to be able to state how your poultry products will be transported or delivered to your clients. Pag blamed me for the way it had ended with Chelsea. Their qualifications should also be stated as well as their capabilities and how these benefit the business should be given.
I lost 50ish pounds and was in much better shape. About 8ish months into my diet push, my girlfriend broke up with me and as a result I began going out much more on weeknights which meant I was not able to go to the gym and I got out of my habit of cooking my meals for the week on the weekend and I started eating out and drinking more in the evening and no longer bringing my healthy lunch to work.
That got me from about to about some years back. To stay there, I eat one meal a day, not especially light, plus some occasional nibbling—on the two days a week I teach I usually buy myself an apple fritter in the afternoon. The two things that make keeping my weight down or getting it lower difficult are the tendency to eat as an excuse to take a break in what I am doing and the fact that I enjoy eating.
My wife, on the other hand, gets seriously shaky and indecisive if she goes without eating for too long, where my standard pattern would be much too long for her. I had a messed-up sleep schedule and fidgeted constantly and ran back and forth around my house. From personal experience, its declining motivation.
When I look at the mirror and dislike what I see, I become motivated for change. The motivation helps me restrict my diet. As I loose weight, I become more satisfied with my appearance, and less motivated to deprive myself of tacos. Allowing a skipped breakfast due to lateness with tasty snack to make up later will result in me unconsciously contriving to be late more and more frequently.
Generally, allowing any exception for [reason] will result in a much greater incidence of [reason] and situations similar to [reason] in the future. Allowing small exceptions will be used as mental justification for allowing larger exceptions later. This worked for me to quit smoking. Worked for exercise too.
Because you would throw up after the second one?! I literally gagged a bit at the thought of that. Otherwise, really good review with a good structure. So these people had lipostats that had adjusted to an extremely high set point, but this set point was so dependent on the type of food easily available to them that when locked in a room with only gross food, they could eat minimally and not even feel hunger?
Whereas if I have some snacks nearby, I find even mild hunger fairly irritating. Anecdotally, I actually lost about 15 pounds when I went to college because I was on a meal plan and in a dorm with no kitchen, and therefore rarely had snack foods laying around. Despite the all-you-can eat for meals a day cafeteria with not stellar but still tasty food including a little soft serve cone most nights , eating till I was full but only a few times a day, vs constant bored snacking at home, resulted in me eating less overall.
That could also explain how people stayed thinner before despite super-rich foods… it was rich, but not convenient. This has worked very very well for me and I highly recommend it: The possible downside being that I just performed an end-run around having to actually have willpower….
And after losing about seventy pounds, I rebounded ten when I took a job where there are vending machines just down the hall. Such as a tax or even a ban? Drugs would be an analogy here, or alcohol. Another aspect of this is related to your Parable of Talents post. Maybe trying to lose weight for obese people is like trying to hold your breath underwater.
Perhaps more empathy is required. How much suffering is being caused by lack of belief updating between the medical community and government officials?
By television personalities and magazine articles? I was downvoted down to hell on reddit once for talking about weight homeostasis as a given… which is been my experience all my life. I also had a group of friends over last weekend and they bought a lot of food and we made meat rich barbecue… I had an urge to eat salads then next few days.
I have a similar experience. The point at which I got my weight down was when the kids were at college and my wife was out of town for about six weeks taking care of her mother. That made sticking to a one meal a day and that meal not very large pattern much easier. I used to think I was some kind of freak, then I tried calorie tracking and found that every time I binged on calories of ribs one day, the next day I would skip a meal without even noticing it.
And that my regular diet, with its fruits and vegetables, was not supplying me with calories a day, so I needed those calories to catch up. One interesting thing was when my body recomposed at age 38 after I got a new job. I suddenly had visible abs with no new exercise, due to not having time to relax and eat I guess, and that change stuck even when I got back to my old routine.
I used to think I was some kind of freak. This is like, Calories out of This seemed crazy and possibly sadistic at the time, but makes some sense in the light of food reward and not overeating which may well have been the intuition behind it. How does gastric bypass fit into all of this?
As far as I know, it is very effective even for long term weight loss. Is drastically reduced stomach volume something that even the mighty lipostat must ultimately bow to? As a side note, I lost roughly 60 pounds in with a combination of exercise, giving up sugary drinks and reducing meal portions.
I seem to recall something about gastric bypass also causing some changes in microbiota, which, if they were experimentally prevented from happening in mice, would result in the mice eventually regaining weight despite a bypass surgery.
If, for example, the key point is getting down to a low enough weight, long enough that the body readjusts its set point, then the key is just to get down there, by hook or by crook. Seems to be easier psychologically. MealSquares are not available in the EU, but Joylent is a reasonably priced alternative to Soylent that ships from the Netherlands.
I tried Joylent and found that it was not merely bland, but actively unpleasant. I had to mix it with milk just to be able to choke it down. For the record, I find nothing unpleasant about the taste of Joylent. My impression depends on how hungry I am at the moment: The other side of that though is that the lean side of my family where I assume such relevant genes largely came from also tends to be sensitive to bad food or bad diets. Most of my family would feel a little sick after a fatty meal composed entirely of fried chicken tenders, wings, or other such foods; and ice cream, cake, or candy on an empty stomach would also be unpleasant.
This sort of thing makes me wonder if part of the operation of that weight set-point is tied to the same instinctual avoidance of foods that have become associated with nausea, or other elements of the disgust response.
My mother was able to serve my family broccoli and other green vegetables with nary a complaint, and I liked eating brussels sprouts raw and freshly picked from the stalk. Over-sensitivity to bitter flavors is really maladaptive in the modern environment—And I blame that tendency for the unfortunate reluctance of people to appreciate the rich complexity of a glass of gin-and-bitters.
My appetite setpoint is so low that I will reliably get bad headaches from low blood sugar long before my body lets me know that I should eat. I have to force myself to eat by the clock to avoid this.
BBC did something of a replication in a documentary: I bet I could make any prison inmate gain weight if I and he wanted to. Then I discovered the Gallon of Milk a Day diet. For a month I drank a quart of milk after every meal, 3 meals a day — so, not even a gallon. I gained 22 lbs in a month. Researchers have a hard time controlling food intake for a bunch of people.
The researchers were able to torture a bunch of people? More likely the inmates were scraping food into the trash or some other methodology flaw. The history of modern athletics is people moving their weight up and down at will with calories. I think it can. When I was in college I was trying to build muscle, so I spent a few months straight eating about extra calories per day in the form of ice cream protein shakes, and gained maybe ten pounds over the whole period.
I lost it all very quickly when I stopped overeating. Interesting, you make the same point that I just added, but you seem to be interpreting it in the opposite direction. Yes, the body is not a perfect fuel converter, so CICO is definitely false in that particular sense. At the other end of the equation, calories in the mouth either go into the bloodstream or come out the rectum, and any great excess of the latter is usually pretty obvious.
Conservation of energy is applied. Asking where, how, and why they are being burned, may lead to useful insight. I doubt most people put their poop through a bomb calorimeter or even on a scale.
An extra couple ounces of waste, or waste with not-fully processed macronutrients, would add up over time without being particularly noticeable. A tiny uptick in your average internal temperature would also be unnoticeable, but would potentially be a big source of additional calorie use.
Did you read the link I provided? But if that does happen with any regularity, we should be able to quantify and understand it. I am agnostic as to whether he believes his claim. So, yes, I want moridinamael to admit that he has spoken falsely or be broadly understood to have spoken falsely and not in a pedantic nobody-really-cares manner. How large can the proposed effect plausibly be, how could it be measured, how could it be changed?
Unless you gained pounds of bacteria, this would still net out in your poop, which is already one of the factors under discussion. Yes, a large amount of your poop is bacteria, that was my point. The bacteria cannot be converted to weight gain, as they will leave your digestive track in relatively short order.
And Guy 2 has to be at Negative Poo to make this work. But this is basic enough science that either the nutritionists have taken the measurements and done the math, or the whole field is bunk.
Or, actually, just the law of conservation of energy, which is more fundamental. I think it likely that all the factors Scott goes into in the OP come into play.
Some inner regulatory systems caused my body to do all kinds of different things to keep me from gaining weight. And none of things looked like me intentionally upping my exercise to burn calories. In fact, I was trying to provide evidence for exactly what John Schilling is saying.
I guess I just did a bad job of it. A quick Googling suggests that calories per day of excess burn is roughly the amount you might expect from an Olympic athlete working unusually hard. In contrast, I was doing about an hour of weight training, roughly five days a week. There is probably room for some kind of narrative where I was subconsciously eating less throughout the day to offset the caloric bolus of my evening ice cream shake.
All of this set aside, the human body is not a bomb calorimeter. The body does not take in food and oxygen and perfectly combust it into heat energy and carbon dust. There are an endless array of things that may keep your body from properly absorbing the nutrients you eat. Gut flora issues, intestinal absorption issues, general digestive inefficiency, lack of dietary fiber, metabolic diseases, parasites … Any and all of the above can make it so that calories of food in your mouth does not equal calories of energy moving from your digestive tract into your bloodstream.
And downstream from that, there are other knobs that control how your body prefers to store the chemical energy that it does retain.
Yes, eating more calories will directionally cause you to gain weight, unless you have something really unusual wrong with you. The Computer Is Your Friend! All clones Clearance Indigo and below please stop briefly at the Discipline Booths available at all Dormitory Cafeteria entrances prior to your meal. Traffic is now routing through Dormitory Access Corridor K, as it was before sabotage. Note that traffic never routed through Dormitory Access Corridor J.
There never was a Dormitory Access Corridor J. If there was, or if there ever had been, it would not currently be full of nuclear sludge due to a meltdown in Safe Fun Times Reactor A As has well been established, the SFTR model is faultless. I think the key is finding ways to metaphorically lock yourself in a room for months. Maybe ten years ago I read an NYT review of the Atkins diet and it said that when Atkins came out, the makers of Dextatrim threw in the towel.
They had known about low-carb diets for years, but now that it was public, they figured people would no longer need to buy appetite suppressants. So they have scaled back their marketing significantly, and now talk about being an herbal supplement to support natural metabolic health, etc. My weight has been up and down all my life and it always went up when I decided to eat whatever I wanted and abandon exercise, and it ALWAYS came back down in a very predictable and regular manner, when I started watching my calories and start exercise.
Although hunger is highly variable and I have no doubt it makes losing weight for some people much easier, I highly doubt most people are defeated by their body refusing to lose weight rather than the fact that being hungry really sucks. I used to cut weight for wrestling in high school. Almost everyone in wrestling did. Some kids came into wrestling really fat. A more plausible hypothesis than highly variable setpoints in metabolic efficiency is that almost no one rigorously tracks their calories in and out every single day without cheating.
I took a sabbatical, a few months of which were just spent doing nothing structured, and I barely even had to think about eating a perfect diet. I think this is important: In such a context, one paradoxically expects the idle rich to be the thinnest and the busy poor to be the fattest, as I think is roughly the case in America today.
Where people disagree on is how much willpower it takes to get there. Clearly there are individuals who through luck or more perseverance have managed to permanently lose weight through dieting — some of them write books about it. Leptin is an example of a biological grounding for hunger, hyperpalatable and bland foods are examples for levers. Likewise, that Calories your Fitbit told you you burned during your workout might not be accurate, but what we know about physics tells us that your physical motions required you to expend some minimum amount of energy, as determined by how much force you exerted on your body parts, over how much distance.
To put your point a little differently, there are two different questions that CICO might answer. In my personal experience, I was taught growing up that eating a variety of foods was healthy. And I was definitely much healthier at a BMI of 24 than at FWIW this has been my experience as well. I currently at 42 am the same weight as I was as a High School Wrestler. But it does not come naturally to me my father is overweight as are my siblings.
It requires constant vigilance. Twice right after I went to college and right after I got married my weight ballooned up to 40lbs heavier than I am now. Both times I lost the weight by counting calories and I have kept the weight off for over 10 years, by simply weighing myself every morning and if my weight gets over a certain point I start cutting back how much I eat.
If that does not work I start rigorously counting calories. And my mother taught me this method well before the low fat crazy which I always knew was BS. I do think there is something to the set point theory, but in my experience again for me you can reset your set point down by dieting. I do structure my life to avoid junk foods though. I for one have a ceiling of about pounds. A few times in my life I have hired a personal trainer for several months and been able to slowly build up muscle weight.
If I stop exercising for a few weeks I lose the muscle very quickly. So I could gain and keep weight if I dedicated my life to doing so. I assume the experience for obese people is similar. If they truly dedicate a lot of time and money to losing weight it CAN be done. But you have to stay vigilant for the rest of your life.
The body wants to return to that set point eventually and if you slack for even a week the process will begin. But as others have mentioned how does the set point theory reconcile with the change in obesity rates over time? I guess you can argue that increase calorie intake at an early point in life is ratcheting up folks set point and then the body works really hard to defend that point.
But that still is an argument that the obesity problem is driven by folks eating too many calories and to a lesser extent not getting enough activity. But the rise in obesity has been accompanied by a rise in calories consumed. Maybe junk food not modifying lipostat is the reason people consume more calories in the presence of junk food. But it is hard to see how increased calories is not a major driver. What caused the obesity epidemic? I, personally, have no trouble believing that increased calorie consumption fully accounts for the obesity epidemic.
I think companies have just gotten better at creating hyperpalatable foods that interact with our brains like cocaine does and make us want to consume more and more. I had heard, of course, about food scientists, taste tests, etc. There would be huge profit in it too: I recall reading about an experiment where people were asked to eat a large bowl of oatmeal, I think, every day, and otherwise make no special effort to lose weight.
I think people did lose weight, not because oatmeal has no calories, of course, but because it was more filing and satiating, relative to the number of calories it has, than most other things people were eating.
Neither are things like beans and lentils, or eggs. I used to weigh pounds. I started dieting, with pretty careful calorie-counting, and lost weight much faster than I expected down to pounds.
After I lost weight much less quickly than I predicted, even though I was using the same math and calorie-counting ability both times.
But if you want to lose weight the big thing to do is eat less and calories are a pretty good measurement of how much you are eating.
At first you lose some weight, but soon through less fidgeting or some other conservation strategy your body adjusts its basal metabolic rate down and you plateau.
I have seen it work for enough people to conclude that it is far from useless. Actually tracking what you eat for a month can be eye opening and can give you a better idea of what you should be eating to stay at your desired weight. Yet the portion of people overweight has increased and the reason is that people are simply eating more calories. For most people who want to weigh less the answer is eat less calories.
How hard it is to achieve that probably varies from person to person. From Stephan Guyenet himself http: Should we be telling addicts that they need to start counting the grams of heroin they do each week and to willpower themselves to a healthy relationship with the drug? We tell them to do no drugs at all, and then we do our best to incentivize that. No need to let the perfect be the enemy of the good. I know it also helps to have a culture that encourages exercise and healthy eating etc.
I feel the bolded bit is an empty statement. We tell [heroin addicts] to do no drugs at all, and then we do our best to incentivize that. I feel like somebody should point out here that aside from legal risk, the chief negative health effect of being continuously addicted to legal heroin preferably in pill form is constipation. If we care about the welfare of heroin addicts, the best practical solution to their problems is to fully legalize the drug and its paraphernalia.
Or is that more a risk with the injection method? A lot of opiate ODs in my area are from inconsistent street doses. You would avoid that with consistent legal doses. A lot of prescription painkiller ODs are actually from the poison that the government puts in the painkillers to kill you if you take too much, rather than from the opiates.
So it would be nice if the government stopped doing that. To be fair, the acetaminophen content of a Vicodin pill is medicine. It merely happens to be a medicine that will destroy your liver if you take too much. I had the impression that heroin is the type of thing that people tend to OD on and die. Because paraphernalia is outlawed, people share needles and re-use needles which might be dirty or blunt or infected.
Because use and sale is illegal people use those needles to shoot up in unsafe places. Both of those lead to a risk of HIV, infections, vein damage etcetera that would go away if you could easily get clean cheap needles and buy a cheap reliable known dose and get help administering it in the equivalent of a pot cafe. Because the drug is illegal it is very expensive and hard to get in a consistent known potency level, so people can accidentally take too much or go too long without it and go through bad withdrawal.
Or they might take other drug combinations to make up for not being able to get enough good enough heroin. Shooting up causes the level in the bloodstream to change very suddenly. Taking pills is much more safe but some of the active ingredient is destroyed by stomach acid or takes longer to digest.
One of the founders of Johns Hopkins was a heroin addict. In retrospect it was obvious why it happened: I was eating the school lunch every day, which consisted of burger, fries, cookie, etc.
I pretty quickly got back down to what is normal for me, i. Similarly, right now, if I get much above lbs. People who run in the evening lose more weight than those that run in the evening as those that run in the morning adjust and eat more throughout the day. I wonder if there is a sleep mechanism for resetting the our responses to food. Lack of sleep inhibits production of anabolic hormone s? This is such a basic fact of exercise physiology that I am perpetually annoyed that nobody seems to take it into account….
I think Scott Sonnon does. Is the gladwell comparison illustrative enough to open with like that? How strongly does BMI correlate with being overweight? Not according to the Internet! And the Internet never lies, as we all know.
Just be careful not to open a portal to an alternate universe. Spinning it as something to do with willpower is just argumentative and seems more like a smug way to dismiss that lean people may have conscious strategies to stay lean. We have an executive function and it can override automatic regulation. There are even studies to back this claim up. They all reversed their diabetes by changing their diet—mainly reducing calories—and heavily resisted the drugs pushed on them.
Regardless of what the studies say, I think people do change their diets when they have the information and incentives. This really needs to be added to the post somewhere because way too many sources bury this very simple and well-researched point that for the average person the difference between diets is negligible.
A couple selected papers: Comparison of weight loss among named diet programs in overweight and obese adults: Jama, 9 , A call for an end to the diet debates. Jama, 7 , All of this is pretty much standard operating procedure in exercise nutrition and I find it annoying to notice that the people who fail at making dieters thinner never ever bothers to consult the people that succeed at fuelling Chris Froome to ride a bicycle really fast.
The principles are the same, you just want to do the opposite. The absolutely most efficient way of maximising calorie uptake is through maltodextrin which is utterly tasteless. I will freely admit to having a totally unreasonable food budget; I eat at Michelin starred restaurants regularly enough that there are at least three where the staff knows me by name and I cook to a quite fair standard at home too. The lipostat is named such because of its proposed effects on body fat, not because it is proposed to be set by consumed fats.
For those of us who enjoy lifting weights, those two concepts would have very different implications. The obvious guess is that we have a separate muscle set point, how much muscle the body thinks it needs, based exercise. But why does exercise reduce fat? If you had a constant caloric intake, exercise consumes those calories, both directly and by creating hungry muscles. Vaguely similar things exist for all kinds of hormones and neurotransmitters.
Even if leptin injections are an inefficient mode of weight control, it still seems to suggest a promising pathway, especially in people who have lost the weight and want to keep it off. Is modern pet food also hyperpalatable, or do rats just have better regulatory mechanisms than cats and dogs? That struck me too. I suspect pet treats might be the pet equivalent of hyperpalatable food even if the kibble is not.
Pet observations also definitely suggest that very rigid simplistic CICO is not quite right. I know a family with two german shepherds, a male and a female. They are both fed literally the same amount each meal. They both get the exact same exercise walked at the same time, etc. The male has a full-body tire and weighs lbs. The female weighs 70 lbs.
I appreciate this clarification. I think, if nothing else, this thread has made it clear that CICO means a lot of different things to a lot of different people, and so should probably be dissolved as a phrase into its possible meanings, for clarity. It strikes me as the type of thing where the relative ease or difficulty of measurement has shaped the whole concept.
You can pretty carefully measure the chemical energy available by oxidation of food with a calorimeter. Similarly, you can measure the minimum output of a body turning a cycle wheel, moving kg up X stairs pretty easily. It works fine for me; I must be close enough to average that the measurable is a decent proxy for the desired measurement.
So I find CICO utterly banal on one level — no one can gain 2 kg from eating 1 kg of food, mass and energy are conserved. Seems from the article, and anecdotal experience of others, that those deviations can be pretty large. The idea that the actual thermodynamics involved match easily to the numbers on the cookie box and the FitBit is a distorting oversimplification.
FWIW anecdotally I was able to lose weight by calorie counting, but had to be well below the recommended caloric intake level to stay on-plan e. I could only achieve that weight loss rate by averaging calories a day. At first I thought I was cheating somewhere, but even being very strict gave the same result. Either I do not have a good understanding of when a cat is obese or my experience directly contradicts yours. I must admit though that we usually were kinda stingy with treats.
We have a very weird cat who refuses to eat anything other than dry cat food. Even treats that are very similar are suspect. Needless to say, not obese. Our dog probably would get fat if we allowed him to. Got to lick plates and for some reason loved a bowl of frosted mini wheats no milk every morning.
Pets can be weird too. An indoor surgically neutered cat or dog esp a dog is more activity constrained than a rodent in a cage under the conditions they did the experiments under. Much like with dieting oneself, the trouble is not having him overeat his bland food, but rather preventing him from getting the good stuff. I have had many pet rats, and about half of them easily became obese eating a standard pet rat diet, while the other half did not. The majority of them got fat, while the majority of the other kinds of rats did not.
All of these rats were female and lived together, eating the exact same food. Pardon me while I grope around on the floor; my eyes rolled so hard at this they fell out of my sockets and rolled under the table. Now I may possibly be putting words into his mouth but what I took away from that was: And the worst thing about that whole encounter, where I admit I threw a tantrum and stalked off in a huff, was that I only turned up because I got a letter calling me to the outpatient clinic.
I think Scott even mentioned in past posts about doing it himself: As to the rest of it, diets are only half the problem. What do I cut from my meal plans for the succeeding three days to offset the splurge of calories? Sticking to the diet! He makes the point our bodies know exactly what to eat. How can scientists do better? If you eat what you were designed to eat caveman diet thinking you will enjoy it better than processed stuff because evolution evolved you to like the food that is best for you.
Any other conclusion is bizarre. But modern food confuses us so we need to get our heads straight. Once we get our heads straight and stick to the right kind of foods we can totally enjoy our food and stay the right weight. The science of food may be very interesting but it just confuses people.
So get your head straight, understand what you really enjoy and it genuinely becomes easy. Once you get your head straight, addiction becomes much easier to handle.
This guy really does understand addiction from the point of view of the addict rather than from the point of view of the scientist. Ah well, I am sounding like a advert so I am sure I am convincing nobody.
So how are the hunter-gatherers all that different to farmers growing one staple crop, if they are relying on one particular food? It also seems to me that if anything happens to the nut, like bad droughts or blight, the! Kung are in trouble, unless they cope with that by upping the amounts of other vegetable food sources they consume. Purely a guess, but it might be because nuts tend to be more easily stored. A few hours a day. Mongongo nuts have a fairly complete nutritional profile.
Kung for a few years. I looked into it since we are always on the lookout for more and better ingredients even if unusual. But they are extremely similar to almonds, nutritionally. This clickbait website predicted mongongo nuts to be the next food craze two years ago. They ALSO said that mongongo nuts are like kopi luwak, only with elephants instead of civets.
My impression is that just grabbing them off the plant is more common. I thought this was a good slogan, but I realized that this could apply to all of our consciousness. There really is no difference between character and chemical, and reading about the hunger feedback loops deeply disturbs me, because it makes this equivocation really obvious.
If anyone has further reading on this topic, please send it my way. You are in danger to start liking the books by Peter Watts , esp. Free will as a concept works well when applied to a human as a whole, viewed from outside, but dissolves into incoherence where you start to look inside the causal mechanisms of decision making.
Am I out of the loop? Elbow Room and The Problem of the Soul are good books. I weigh pounds. What proportion of people are as fat as the people in those photographs? Under a percent, I bet. Ten pounds got lost surprisingly quickly and easily after I ecame aware of tension around my ribs near my breastbone and released it. I thought this would just lower anxiety, but I also became more aware of satiety. Even the Tasy Cake Chocolate Junior, my favorite thing along those lines, only gets me to eat something less than one per week.
It started with my face which, after a few weeks, resulted in my eyelids twitching uncontrollably. It would be useful to set up boundary conditions, then admit that there is some nonlinear function mapping them. That is where the strictness of physics takes over.
The overwhelming urge to cheat on the diet would overwhelm them. Or is it some other factor that prevents individuals from committing to diet and exercise? In which case, we should be explicit about it. However, we can note that it is remarkably hard for humans particularly with brains compromised from junk-food hacking to override the temptation to defect on a spartan diet and exercise. This is exactly what the military does in boot camp.
If someone is overweight, they get reduced rations. If someone is underweight, they get extra rations. And then they move around a lot all day long. Imagine if it were that communism somehow magically worked for like twenty percent of countries that tried it. Then its status as something that can work in certain circumstances would be much, much stronger than the status quo, in which it never works. Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind -driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient -rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
The nutrient-rich upwelled water stimulates the growth and reproduction of primary producers such as phytoplankton. Due to the biomass of phytoplankton and presence of cool water in these regions, upwelling zones can be identified by cool sea surface temperatures SST and high concentrations of chlorophyll-a.
The increased availability of nutrients in upwelling regions results in high levels of primary production and thus fishery production. The three main drivers that work together to cause upwelling are wind , Coriolis effect , and Ekman transport.
They operate differently for different types of upwelling, but the general effects are the same. As a result of the wind, the water is transported a net of 90 degrees from the direction of the wind due to Coriolis forces and Ekman transport.
Ekman transport causes the surface layer of water to move at about a 45 degree angle from the direction of the wind, and the friction between that layer and the layer beneath it causes the successive layers to move in the same direction. This results in a spiral of water movement down the water column. Then, it is the Coriolis forces that dictate which way the water will move; in the Northern hemisphere, the water is transported to the right of the direction of the wind.
In the Southern Hemisphere, the water is transported to the left of the wind. The major upwellings in the ocean are associated with the divergence of currents that bring deeper, colder, nutrient rich waters to the surface. There are at least five types of upwelling: Coastal upwelling is the best known type of upwelling, and the most closely related to human activities as it supports some of the most productive fisheries in the world.
Wind-driven currents are diverted to the right of the winds in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect. The result is a net movement of surface water at right angles to the direction of the wind, known as the Ekman transport See also Ekman Spiral. When Ekman transport is occurring away from the coast, surface waters moving away are replaced by deeper, colder, and denser water. When brought to the surface, these nutrients are utilized by phytoplankton , along with dissolved CO 2 carbon dioxide and light energy from the sun , to produce organic compounds , through the process of photosynthesis.
Upwelling regions therefore result in very high levels of primary production the amount of carbon fixed by phytoplankton in comparison to other areas of the ocean.
Worldwide, there are five major coastal currents associated with upwelling areas: All of these currents support major fisheries. The four major eastern boundary currents in which coastal upwelling primarily occurs are the Canary Current, Benguela Current, California Current, and Humboldt Current.
The subsystems are divided by an area of permanent upwelling off of Luderitz , which is the strongest upwelling zone in the world. The split in this system occurs at Point Conception , California due to weak upwelling in the South and strong upwelling in the north. The Canary Current is an eastern boundary current of the North Atlantic Gyre and is also separated due to the presence of the Canary Islands. Finally, the Humboldt Current or the Peru Current flows west along the coast of South America from Peru to Chile and extends up to 1, kilometers offshore.
Upwelling at the equator is associated with the Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ which actually moves, and consequently, is often located just north or south of the equator. Although there are no Coriolis forces present along the equator, upwelling still occurs just north and south of the equator.
This results in a divergence, with denser, nutrient-rich water being upwelled from below, and results in the remarkable fact that the equatorial region in the Pacific can be detected from space as a broad line of high phytoplankton concentration. Large-scale upwelling is also found in the Southern Ocean. Here, strong westerly eastward winds blow around Antarctica , driving a significant flow of water northwards. This is actually a type of coastal upwelling.
Since there are no continents in a band of open latitudes between South America and the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, some of this water is drawn up from great depths. In many numerical models and observational syntheses, the Southern Ocean upwelling represents the primary means by which deep dense water is brought to the surface. In some regions of Antarctica, wind-driven upwelling near the coast pulls relatively warm Circumpolar deep water onto the continental shelf, where it can enhance ice shelf melt and influence ice sheet stability.
Some models of the ocean circulation suggest that broad-scale upwelling occurs in the tropics, as pressure driven flows converge water toward the low latitudes where it is diffusively warmed from above.
The required diffusion coefficients, however, appear to be larger than are observed in the real ocean. Nonetheless, some diffusive upwelling does probably occur. Upwelling intensity depends on wind strength and seasonal variability, as well as the vertical structure of the water , variations in the bottom bathymetry , and instabilities in the currents. In some areas, upwelling is a seasonal event leading to periodic bursts of productivity similar to spring blooms in coastal waters.
Wind-induced upwelling is generated by temperature differences between the warm, light air above the land and the cooler denser air over the sea. In temperate latitudes , the temperature contrast is greatly seasonably variable, creating periods of strong upwelling in the spring and summer, to weak or no upwelling in the winter.
For example, off the coast of Oregon, there are four or five strong upwelling events separated by periods of little to no upwelling during the six-month season of upwelling. In contrast, tropical latitudes have a more constant temperature contrast, creating constant upwelling throughout the year. Click on one of the examples below.
Joshua Plant graduated from Harvard Medical School first in his class, accomplishing an 8-year program in just 3. He earned his Ph. Plant has published across several scientific journals for his work on cellular growth, metabolism and other health-related topics and oversees the creation and quality of all Zija International products.
Karen Jensen is a Master Herbalist, trained at Dr. Christopher's School of Natural Healing. She is a certified midwife and has published several books about herbal health and midwifery. She developed and taught courses for the Certified Natural Health Professional under the direction of Dr.
She enjoys sewing, cooking, natural health, continuing education, gardening, and keeping a small hive of bees. Marcu cultivated a love of trees from an early age and has spent her life studying plants, particularly medical and healing plants.
As a highly-respected researcher and clinical pharmacologist, she has worked in clinical pharmacies and biomedical research laboratories around the world. She is the author of the book Miracle Tree. Johnson pioneered evidence-based essential oil therapy, which combines the art of ancient healing with modern science to maximize the benefits of essential oils.
He moved his practice to Orem, Utah, and after ten years he formed a partnership with another Utah doctor to start the Integrative Medical Associates. Johnson enjoys spending time with his wife, kids, grandkids, and loves exercising and golfing. Nicole Johnson got her B. Utah in , amongst other figure titles. She has five children ranging in age from 4 to 17 who she adores and chases, all day every day. Her true passion in life is educating people and helping them live a healthier life, even on the run.
Shelly Maguire has developed and brought to market over 50 anti-aging skin care products since During her career, her other entrepreneurial endeavors include founding and running a chain of high-end beauty spas with over employees and creating an accredited continuing education program for massage therapists and estheticians.
Diagnosed at the age of 12 with the incurable disease, Cystic Fibrosis, and given a life expectancy of 18 years, Shelly became interested in health and wellness to help combat her disease as well as her own skin challenges. She has used her own life experiences to inspire, motivate and help women and men worldwide! Her passion to help others and interact with them personally, has led her to the direct sales industry.
The Zija Difference Since , Zija International has been dedicated to supplying the world with nutrition-packed supplements and creating premium products that meet an unprecedented standard of excellence. Our Moringa Farms Not all Moringa is created equal—its nutritional content can vary significantly depending on location.
Monica Marcu More About Moringa. Highly Selective Sourcing, Uncompromised Quality Each farm and its growing and harvesting procedures are meticulously assessed through site visits to ensure sustainability and ethicality toward environment and employees, eco-friendly practices, and raw material excellence. Joshua Plant Long-Standing Partnerships. Perfecting the Process From hand-planted seeds to hand-picked botanicals, we like to be meticulous in our preparation to ensure our products are equipped with excellence.
Harvesting the Essentials We carefully preserve the Moringa leaves, seeds, and fruits—the most beneficial parts of the tree—for our products and leave out the nutrient-deprived branches that are ordinarily used as filler in other Moringa products.