Giant panda

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Nutrisystem®
Figure on 8 to 13 pounds during the two- week kick-start phase, then 1 to 2 pounds a week thereafter. Experiential learning is a valuable element for kinesiology professionals. They are a bit epensive, but Nutra System does work if you eat the food. This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births. Supervised full-or part-time off-campus work experience and training in health care management. Introduction to Organization Theory, Behavior, and Management.

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The Best Ways to Lose 20 Pounds

This course is designed to provide students with developmentally appropriate knowledge and skills in health and fitness. The course will address health-related issues in personal, interpersonal, and community settings. An individual fitness requirement may be required. This course examines the word roots, prefixes, suffixes and terms used in medicine and clinical exercise.

A major focus will be on the terms used in the major organ systems of the body, diseases, injuries, and medical treatments. First Aid and CPR. A study of basic first aid procedures, cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , automated external defibrillation AED , and blood borne pathogens. Upon successful completion of this course students will be able to sit for national certification in first aid and CPR.

Study of the history and philosophy of physical activity, and an introduction to anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, motor behavior, and psychology of exercise and sport. This course will also introduce careers in kinesiology and the requirements for graduation with a degree in kinesiology. Formerly titled "Cultural and Scientific Foundations of Kinesiology.

Outdoor Activities and Innovative Games. Practice in delivering instructions of selected outdoor activities hiking, orienteering, biking and innovative games for all age groups.

Weekend class field trips required. Laboratory fee will be assessed. Formerly titled "Outdoor Activities and Lifetime Sports. Introduction to concepts and skills that will prepare the student to become an effective leader of physical fitness, sport and health, and physical education programs. Skill Analysis in Physical Activity: Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected individual activities such as golf, bowling, archery, and track and field.

This course will discuss the principles and philosophies of coaching sports. Domains will remain consistent with that of the National Standards for Sport Coaches and will focus on philosophy and ethics, safety and injury prevention, physical conditioning, growth and development, teaching and communication, sport skills and tactics, organization and administration, and evaluation.

Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected team sports, such as football, volleyball, and team handball. Practice in delivering developmentally appropriate physical activity instruction in a variety of selected dual sports, such as badminton, tennis and handball.

Practice in delivering a variety of appropriate aerobic, musculoskeletal fitness, and wellness activities for children and adults. Formerly titled "Aerobic Fitness Instruction. Provide instruction in facilitating the foundational movement skills which provide the basis for all movement capacities and their application in specialized activities geared to the early childhood through adolescent stages.

Formerly titled "Rhythmical Activities and Dance. Instructional techniques applied to health related fitness using resistance training, balance, flexibility, and musculoskeletal conditioning activities.

A study of motor, physical, and neuromuscular development across the human life span. Effects of social, cognitive, growth and maturation, and aging factors on motor development will be addressed. Directed field experience may be required. Scientific Principles of Physical Activity. A study of the physiological and biomechanical principles of physical activity and human movement. Emphasis is placed on acute responses and chronic adaptations of the musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems to physical activity.

Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries. Prevention and care of athletic injuries. A study of training and conditioning for the team and individual.

Techniques and procedures for emergencies: Organization of the training room facility. Formerly titled "Athletic Injuries and Training Procedures.

Anatomy and Physiology for Kinesiology. A detailed study of anatomy and physiology of the human cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Emphasis will be placed on the anatomical factors that cause human movement and application to common exercise-related injuries. Anatomy laboratory hours may be required. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of human movement through analysis of video and biomechanical data.

Application of Biomechanics to sports performance enhancement and injury prevention. The study of the human body in sports motion and sport objects in motion. The application of mechanical principles, kinematics, and kinetics. Biomechanics laboratory hours are required.

Development, organization, and delivery of appropriate physical activities for children through the adolescent stage. Some fieldwork observation experiences may be required. Laboratory exercises demonstrating principles of exercise physiology. Topics include metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular responses to physical activity and exercise.

A study of the adaptation and effects of the body to physiological stress. Emphasis will be placed on the physiology of training, metabolism and work capacity, and electrocardiography. Health Related Fitness Assessment Laboratory. This course includes laboratory and clinical measurements of aerobic capacity, balance, body composition, electrocardiography, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and pulmonary function.

Students are required to demonstrate competence in administering health related physical fitness. Health Related Fitness Assessment. A study of the principles and concepts of fitness measurement. Topics include graded exercise testing, electrocardiography, assessment of aerobic capacity, body composition, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and pulmonary function.

Fitness Programming and Exercise Prescription. A study and application of principles and concepts related to designing exercise programs.

The target population includes apparently healthy adults and individuals with special considerations, including cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy, and children. A detailed examination of the nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.

This course focuses on bones. The etiology and pathophysiology of common sport and exercise related injuries to the musculoskeleton will be introduced. Laboratory examination of the skeletal system may be required. An investigation of psychological processes and behaviors related to participation in exercise and physical activities. Psychological effects of exercise, motives for fitness, exercise adherence, and fitness counseling.

This course is designed to introduce students to a variety of therapeutic modalities currently used in clinical rehabilitation. Application of test, measurement, and evaluation theory. Emphasis is on proper selection and administration of tests, appropriate evaluation of test results using basic statistical procedures, and assignment of grades. Introduction to Sport Psychology. This course involves an in-depth study of the psychological factors that underlie and support human behavior and performance, particularly as it relates to sports.

This course introduces contemporary and practical theories regarding mental processes and applicable uses for this information. Formerly titled "Psychosocial Aspects of Exercise and Sport. Evaluation of Athletic Injuries. This course deals in depth with issues related to athletic training, including assessment of injuries, and proper taping and wrapping techniques. Formerly titled "Advanced Athletic Training.

Teaching Secondary Physical Education. Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to the teaching and learning of physical education in the secondary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, behavior management strategies, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the secondary school level is required.

Restricted course; advisor code required for registration. In-depth study of exercise physiology, emphasizing application of physiological principles of training for physical fitness and sport performance, graded exercise testing, and professional issues. This course includes introduction to research in exercise physiology. This course examines various therapeutic exercises and programs used in the treatment and rehabilitation of exercise-related injuries.

This course will address the basic concepts of nutrition from a scientific basis, applying these concepts to understanding of food nutritional labeling, dietary recommendations for health and fitness, as well as exercise or sport performance enhancement. This course will examine the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for exercise physiology practiced in clinical settings.

Topics will include diseases of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic systems. Skills in administering graded exercise testing with ECG monitoring, pulmonary function testing, and screening for metabolic disease will be emphasized in laboratory settings. Additionally, exercise prescription and programming will be studied for persons with chronic disease. Teaching Elementary Physical Education.

Examination of current trends, issues, and pedagogical approaches to teaching and facilitating learning of physical education in the elementary school curriculum. Contemporary programming, problem solving, and community outreach activities will be emphasized. Weekly fieldwork in the public schools at the elementary school level is required.

Study of concepts of movement awareness and the elements of movement that are the basis of all movement capacities. Application of these concepts to the learning of motor skills will be included. Laboratory exercises demonstrating the principles of motor learning and motor control. Functional applications of motor control and learning theory in skill instruction and sports performance.

Motor learning laboratory hours are required. Theory of coaching relevant to athletics. Emphasis on organization and content involved in coaching sports. The sport content may vary in different semesters between baseball, basketball, football, soccer, softball, and volleyball.

Course may be repeated for credit. A developmental and functional approach to the study of disabilities in physical activity. Legislation, pathologies, and adaptation principles.

Field experience is required throughout the course. Clinical Applications of Athletic Injuries. Consent of instructor and admission to the Athletic Training concentration or Kinesiology and Health Science concentration. This course provides practical applications in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of athletic injuries, and includes hours of supervised field, laboratory and clinical experiences in athletic training. May be repeated for credit for a maximum of 6 semester credit hours.

Practicum in Kinesiology Research. Admission to Kinesiology major and consent of Instructor. This course provides supervised research experience in various areas of kinesiology. May be repeated for credit, but not more than 6 semester credit hours will apply to a bachelor's degree.

Supervised internship with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. First Aid and CPR certification and consent of instructor. Supervised coaching practicum with appropriate agency in the field of kinesiology. Formerly titled "Practicum in Kinesiology. Organized course offering the opportunity for specialized study not normally or not often available as part of the regular course offerings. Students will learn and apply counseling techniques to promote the adoption of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors in diverse populations.

Basic counseling theories will be introduced. Capstone course and seminar for students pursuing training and certification in exercise science, and preparation for graduate studies. Introduction to Nutritional Sciences. Basic concepts related to the classification and functions of nutrients; the process of digestion, absorption, transport, utilization, and storage of nutrients in humans and the interaction between diet and health.

Applied Food Science Practicum. The application of concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Introduction to Nutrition and Dietetics Careers.

Nutrition and Dietetics majors only. General overview of nutrition and dietetics as a profession, including career opportunities, scope of practice, credentialing, code of ethics, and collaboration with other disciplines. Self-directed modules on medical terminology, word roots, prefixes and suffixes will be integrated into the course content. Practicum related to the procurement, preparation, and delivery of food in large foodservice operations.

Concepts related to the chemical, physical, sensory, and nutritional properties of food in menu planning, food preparation, and recipe modification. Nutrition and Health Assessment. Methods, tools, and interpretation of data in assessing the nutritional status of individuals including dietary, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessment, as well as other measurements of health in individuals and the community.

Nutrition Counseling and Education. Discussion of theories of learning and behavior modification, models and techniques, communication skills, evaluation methods, and cultural competence in nutrition counseling and education; and application of concepts to facilitate behavioral change. Nutrition in the Life Span. Nutritional needs during various stages of the lifecycle as influenced by physiologic, cultural, and environmental factors.

Production and Foodservice System Management I. Principles related to the menu planning, food sanitation and safety, procurement, production, marketing, and materials management in foodservice operations Generally offered: Advanced discussion of nutrient structure, function and interaction, metabolic pathways, and regulation and integration of metabolism. Application of learned strategies in meaningful community service through collaborative tasks performed at various community programs.

Service learning activities are aimed at enriching the life experiences of students through civic responsibility and community outreach. Nutrition Care Process Practicum. A problem-based approach to dietetics practice using case simulations and studies; application of basic nutritional assessment skills, nutritional diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring in different settings; practice skills in counseling and nutrition education.

Theories and principles related to the foodservice, systems management including leadership, decision-making, human resources, and financial management of operations. Medical Nutrition Therapy I. Pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of simple human diseases and conditions, part 1. Nutrition-related issues in public health, various community resources, agencies, and programs involved in health promotion and disease prevention. Nutrition in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.

Medical Nutrition Therapy II. Continuation of Advanced Medical Nutrition I; and review of the pathophysiology and the application of the nutritional care process in the treatment of more complex human disease and conditions.

Current Issues in Nutrition. In-depth discussion and analysis of emerging trends, concepts, and controversies in nutritional sciences, including application of evidence-based principles in the discussion.

Independent Study in Nutrition and Dietetics. An exploration of topics of interest to the student in Nutrition and Dietetics. Students work under the close supervision of a faculty member to conduct research, intense study, or a project related to the selected topic.

Introduction to Public Health. Introduces students to the discipline of public health. Dieters using Bistro MD typically lose 2 to 3 lbs. You consume three meals and one snack daily. The meals are higher in calories than some other plans, about 1, to 1, calories per day, resulting in weight loss of about 1 to 2 lbs. Meals are refrigerated and delivered once a week. Video of the Day. Hay Diet Meal Ideas. How to Stop Nutrisystem. Lean Cuisine Vs Nutrisystem. A detailed study of the giant panda's genetic history from [32] confirms that the separation of the Qinlin population occurred about , years ago, and reveals that the non-Qinlin population further diverged into two groups, named the Minshan and the Qionglai - Daxiangling - Xiaoxiangling - Liangshan group respectively, about 2, years ago.

The giant panda has luxuriant black-and-white fur. Adults measure around 1. The giant panda has a body shape typical of bears. It has black fur on its ears, eye patches, muzzle, legs, arms and shoulders. The rest of the animal's coat is white. Although scientists do not know why these unusual bears are black and white, speculation suggests that the bold coloring provides effective camouflage in their shade-dappled snowy and rocky habitat.

It has evolved from previous ancestors to exhibit larger molars with increased complexity and expanded temporal fossa.

The giant panda's paw has a "thumb" and five fingers ; the "thumb" — actually a modified sesamoid bone — helps it to hold bamboo while eating. The longest belongs to the sloth bear. The giant panda typically lives around 20 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity. A seven-year-old female named Jin Yi died in in a zoo in Zhengzhou , China, after showing symptoms of gastroenteritis and respiratory disease. It was found that the cause of death was toxoplasmosis , a disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii and infecting most warm-blooded animals, including humans.

The giant panda genome was sequenced in using Illumina dye sequencing. Despite its taxonomic classification as a carnivoran , the giant panda's diet is primarily herbivorous , consisting almost exclusively of bamboo. Its ability to digest cellulose is ascribed to the microbes in its gut. Ingestion of such a large quantity of material is possible because of the rapid passage of large amounts of indigestible plant material through the short, straight digestive tract.

Given this voluminous diet, the giant panda defecates up to 40 times a day. The giant panda tends to limit its social interactions and avoids steeply sloping terrain to limit its energy expenditures. Two of the panda's most distinctive features, its large size and round face, are adaptations to its bamboo diet.

Anthropologist Russell Ciochon observed: This lower metabolic rate and a more sedentary lifestyle allows the giant panda to subsist on nutrient poor resources such as bamboo. The morphological characteristics of extinct relatives of the giant panda suggest that while the ancient giant panda was omnivorous 7 million years ago mya , it only became herbivorous some Pandas eat any of 25 bamboo species in the wild, such as Fargesia dracocephala [62] and Fargesia rufa.

Bamboo leaves contain the highest protein levels; stems have less. Because of the synchronous flowering, death, and regeneration of all bamboo within a species, the giant panda must have at least two different species available in its range to avoid starvation.

While primarily herbivorous, the giant panda still retains decidedly ursine teeth, and will eat meat, fish, and eggs when available. In captivity, zoos typically maintain the giant panda's bamboo diet, though some will provide specially formulated biscuits or other dietary supplements. Pandas will travel between different habitats if they need to, so they can get the nutrients that they need and to balance their diet for reproduction. They took note of their foraging and mating habits, and analysed samples of their food and feces.

The pandas would move from the valleys into the Qinling Mountains and would only return to the valleys in autumn. During the summer months bamboo shoots rich in protein are only available at higher altitudes which causes low calcium rates in the pandas and during breeding season the pandas would trek back down to eat bamboo leaves rich in calcium.

Although adult giant pandas have few natural predators other than humans, young cubs are vulnerable to attacks by snow leopards , yellow-throated martens , [67] eagles, feral dogs, and the Asian black bear. The giant panda is a terrestrial animal and primarily spends its life roaming and feeding in the bamboo forests of the Qinling Mountains and in the hilly province of Sichuan. Social encounters occur primarily during the brief breeding season in which pandas in proximity to one another will gather.

Pandas were thought to fall into the crepuscular category, those who are active twice a day, at dawn and dusk; however, Jindong Zhang found that pandas may belong to a category all of their own, with activity peaks in the morning, afternoon and midnight. Due to their sheer size, pandas do not need to fear predators like other herbivores. They can therefore be active at any time of the day. Pandas communicate through vocalization and scent marking such as clawing trees or spraying urine.

For this reason, pandas do not hibernate , which is similar to other subtropical mammals, and will instead move to elevations with warmer temperatures. Though the panda is often assumed to be docile, it has been known to attack humans, presumably out of irritation rather than aggression. Initially, the primary method of breeding giant pandas in captivity was by artificial insemination , as they seemed to lose their interest in mating once they were captured. The normal reproductive rate is considered to be one young every two years.

Giant pandas reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight, and may be reproductive until age Copulation time is short, ranging from 30 seconds to five minutes, but the male may mount her repeatedly to ensure successful fertilization. The gestation period ranges from 95 to days. Giant pandas give birth to twins in about half of pregnancies. The mother will select the stronger of the cubs, and the weaker will die.

The mother is thought to be unable to produce enough milk for two cubs, since she does not store fat. For three to four hours, the mother may leave the den to feed, which leaves the cub defenseless. One to two weeks after birth, the cub's skin turns gray where its hair will eventually become black.

A slight pink color may appear on cub's fur, as a result of a chemical reaction between the fur and its mother's saliva. A month after birth, the color pattern of the cub's fur is fully developed.

Its fur is very soft and coarsens with age. The cub begins to crawl at 75 to 80 days; [17] mothers play with their cubs by rolling and wrestling with them. The cubs can eat small quantities of bamboo after six months, [88] though mother's milk remains the primary food source for most of the first year. The interval between births in the wild is generally two years.

In July , Chinese scientists confirmed the birth of the first cub to be successfully conceived through artificial insemination using frozen sperm. Attempts have also been made to reproduce giant pandas by interspecific pregnancy by implanting cloned panda embryos into the uterus of an animal of another species. This has resulted in panda fetuses, but no live births.

In the past, pandas were thought to be rare and noble creatures — the Empress Dowager Bo was buried with a panda skull in her vault. The grandson of Emperor Taizong of Tang is said to have given Japan two pandas and a sheet of panda skin as a sign of goodwill. Unlike many other animals in Ancient China , pandas were rarely thought to have medical uses. The few known uses include the Sichuan tribal peoples' use of panda urine to melt accidentally swallowed needles, and the use of panda pelts to control menses as described in the Qin Dynasty encyclopedia Erya.

Zouyu is a legendary "righteous" animal, which, similarly to a qilin , only appears during the rule of a benevolent and sincere monarch. It is said to be fierce as a tiger , but gentle and strictly vegetarian, and described in some books as a white tiger with black spots. Puzzled about the real zoological identity of the creature captured during the Yongle era, J. Duyvendak exclaims, "Can it possibly have been a Pandah? The comparative obscurity of the giant panda throughout most of China's history is illustrated by the fact that, despite there being a number of depictions of bears in Chinese art starting from its most ancient times, and the bamboo being one of the favorite subjects for Chinese painters, there are no known preth-century artistic representations of giant pandas.

The West first learned of the giant panda on 11 March , when the French missionary Armand David [17] received a skin from a hunter. The first Westerner known to have seen a living giant panda is the German zoologist Hugo Weigold , who purchased a cub in Kermit and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. In , Ruth Harkness became the first Westerner to bring back a live giant panda, a cub named Su Lin [] which went to live at the Brookfield Zoo in Chicago.

In , five giant pandas were sent to London. Gifts of giant pandas to American and Japanese zoos formed an important part of the diplomacy of the People's Republic of China PRC in the s, as it marked some of the first cultural exchanges between the PRC and the West. This practice has been termed "panda diplomacy". By , however, pandas were no longer given as gifts. Since , because of a WWF lawsuit , the United States Fish and Wildlife Service only allows a US zoo to import a panda if the zoo can ensure the PRC will channel more than half of its loan fee into conservation efforts for the giant panda and its habitat.

The issue became embroiled in cross-Strait relations — both over the underlying symbolism, and over technical issues such as whether the transfer would be considered "domestic" or "international", or whether any true conservation purpose would be served by the exchange.

However, when Ma Ying-jeou assumed the presidency in , the offer was accepted, and the pandas arrived in December of that year. Microbes in panda waste are being investigated for their use in creating biofuels from bamboo and other plant materials.

The giant panda is a vulnerable species , threatened by continued habitat loss and habitat fragmentation , [] and by a very low birthrate, both in the wild and in captivity.

The giant panda has been a target of poaching by locals since ancient times and by foreigners since it was introduced to the West. Starting in the s, foreigners were unable to poach giant pandas in China because of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War , but pandas remained a source of soft furs for the locals. The population boom in China after created stress on the pandas' habitat, and the subsequent famines led to the increased hunting of wildlife, including pandas.

During the Cultural Revolution , all studies and conservation activities on the pandas were stopped. After the Chinese economic reform , demand for panda skins from Hong Kong and Japan led to illegal poaching for the black market , acts generally ignored by the local officials at the time.

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