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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: Further, the conditions that the individual understands should elicit grief are also part of this syndrome: Bringing these parts together into one coherent whole are the mental constructs that allow an individual to construe all of these various elements as grief.

An individual labels both his response at a funeral and his response to his favorite baseball team losing as grief, even if the two responses have nothing in common. Additionally, with an understanding of the grief syndrome an individual can judge when others are experiencing grief and whether another individual's grief is genuine, severe, mild, and so on. The idea of emotions as transitory social roles is distinct from the notion of a syndrome, but characterizes the same phenomena, in particular, the eliciting conditions and the responses for an emotion.

In Averill's theory, transitory social roles are the roles that individuals adopt when they choose to play a particular part in a situation as it unfolds. That being said, although the individual chooses the role, Averill stresses that the emotional responses are interpreted by the agent as passive responses to particular situations, not as active choices. The transitory social roles are rule governed ways of performing a social role, and so individuals adopt a role that is consistent with what a given situation calls for.

For example, a grief response is appropriate at a funeral, but different grief responses are appropriate at the burial and at the service before the burial. In order to have an emotion response that is consistent with social norms and expectations, the individual must understand what the role they are adopting means in the context in which it is used. Summarizing these different resources from Averill's theory, the syndromes are used to classify emotions and demarcate them from each other.

The transitory social roles are useful for explaining how the emotion responses relate to the society as well as the specific social context. Considering an emotion as a syndrome, the individual has a variety of choices for the emotion response. The transitory social role imposes rules that dictate which response is appropriate for the situation. For example, the possible responses for anger may include pouting, yelling, hitting, or perhaps no overt behavior at all.

In a particular situation, say a baseball game, a player may adopt a social role that includes pushing the umpire as an anger response. Yelling at the umpire would have been another role the player could have adopted. However, social norms and expectations dictate that pouting in this situation would not be an appropriate response. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. Generally speaking, the emotion process begins with the perception of a stimulus, although in some cases the "stimulus" may be internal, for example, a thought or a memory.

The early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily response that is, the emotion response , and the later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: Most of the theories that will be considered in this section focus on the early part of the emotion process because—according to these theories—the specific emotion that occurs is determined during this part of the process.

There is, however, disagreement about how simple or complex the early part of the emotion process might be, which has lead to competing cognitive and non-cognitive theories.

These two types of theories are discussed in this section, as is a third type, the somatic feedback theories. The cognitive theories contend that the early part of the emotion process includes the manipulation of information and so should be understood as a cognitive process. This is in contrast to theories that state that the generation of the emotion response is a direct and automatic result of perceiving the stimulus—these non-cognitive theories are discussed below.

Two observations demonstrate some of the motivation for the cognitive position. First, different individuals will respond to the same event with different emotions, or the same individual may at different times respond differently to the same stimulus.

For example, one person may be relieved to be laid-off from her job, while a co-worker greets the same news with dread. Or one person may, as a young woman, be excited to be laid-off from her job, but several years later find being laid-off frightening.

As the psychologists Ira Roseman and Craig Smith point out, "Both individual and temporal variability in reaction to an event are difficult to explain with theories that claim that stimulus events directly cause emotional response" , p. Second, there is a wide range of seemingly unrelated events that cause the same emotion. None of these events share any physical feature or property, but all of them can cause the same response.

Roseman and Smith provide an example using sadness and comment on the consequence of this example for a theory of emotion:. These examples pose problems for theories claiming that emotions are unconditioned responses to evolutionary specified stimulus events or are learned via generalization or association , p.

Cognitive theories account for these two observations by proposing that the way in which the individual evaluates the stimulus determines the emotion that is elicited.

Every individual has beliefs, as well as goals, personal tendencies, and desires in place before the emotion causing event is encountered. It is in light of these factors that an individual evaluates the event. For example, different emotions will occur depending on whether an individual evaluates being laid-off as consistent with her current goals or inconsistent with them. Judgment theories are the version of the cognitive position that have been developed by philosophers.

The basic idea, as Robert Solomon puts it, is that an emotion is "a basic judgment about our Selves and our place in our world, the projection of the values and ideals, structures and mythologies, according to which we live and through which we experience our lives" , p. Judging in this context is the mental ability that individuals use when they acknowledge a particular experience or the existence of a particular state of the world; what Martha Nussbaum calls "assent[ing] to an appearance" , p.

Taking anger as an example, in Solomon's theory, "What constitutes the anger is my judging that I have been insulted and offended " , p. Nussbaum has a similar, but more detailed, description of anger as the following set of beliefs: In some contexts, Nussbaum treats judgments and beliefs interchangeably and it is sometimes the case that a series of judgments constitute the emotion.

Elaborating upon her example, Nussbaum points out how the different beliefs are related to the emotion. She notes that, "each element of this set of beliefs is necessary in order for anger to be present: Thus, a change in an individual's beliefs—in his or her way of seeing the world—entails a different emotion, or none at all.

Judging is the central idea in these theories because it is something that the agent actively does, rather than something that happens to the individual. This in turn reflects the judgment theorists' claim that in order to have an emotion the individual must judge evaluate, acknowledge that events are a certain way.

Of course, one can make judgments that are not themselves emotions. For example, the judgment that the wall is red, or the judgment that the icy road is dangerous. One way to distinguish the judgments that are emotions from those that are not is to suggest like Nussbaum that the judgment must be based on a certain set of beliefs. If those beliefs are present, then the emotion will occur; if they are not, then it won't.

A second response is to be more specific about the nature of the judgment itself. The judgments related to emotions are, as Solomon says, "self-involved and relatively intense evaluative judgments The judgments and objects that constitute our emotions are those which are especially important to us, meaningful to us, concerning matters in which we have invested our Selves" , p.

It is also important to note that, although these theories claim that emotion is a cognitive process, they do not claim that it is a conscious or a deliberative process. As Solomon says, "by 'judgment', I do not necessarily mean 'deliberative judgment' One might call such judgments 'spontaneous' as long as 'spontaneity' isn't confused with 'passivity'" , p.

For example, the judgment that I have been insulted and offended does not necessarily require any conscious mental effort on my part. The last issue that needs to be addressed concerns the bodily response.

All of the judgment theories state that judgments are necessary for an emotion. While these theories acknowledge that in many cases various bodily responses will accompany the emotion, many do not consider the bodily response an integral part of the emotion process. Nussbaum believes that this can be demonstrated by considering the consequences of having the requisite mental states while not having a bodily response:.

There usually will be bodily sensations and changes involved in grieving, but if we discovered that my blood pressure was quite low during this whole episode, or that my pulse rate never went above sixty, there would not, I think, be the slightest reason to conclude that I was not grieving. If my hands and feet were cold or warm, sweaty or dry, again this would be of no critical value , p.

Some judgment theorists are, however, more accommodating and allow that the bodily response is properly considered part of the emotion, an effect of the judgments that are made. Thus, William Lyons describes his theory, the causal-evaluative theory, as follows:. The causal order is important, emotion is a psychosomatic state, a bodily state caused by an attitude, in this case an evaluative attitude , pp.

In theory such as Lyons', the bodily response is considered part of the emotion process and the emotion is determined by the cognitive activity—the judgment or evaluation—that occurs Lyons , pp. Cognitive appraisal theories are the cognitive theories that have been developed by psychologists.

Like the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories emphasize the idea that the way in which an individual evaluates or appraises the stimulus determines the emotion. But unlike the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories do not rely on the resources of folk psychology beliefs, judgments, and so forth.

The cognitive appraisal theories also offer a more detailed analysis of the different types of appraisals involved in the emotion process.

This section will focus on Ira Roseman's theory , which was one of the first cognitive appraisal theories. As an early contribution, Roseman's theory is in some ways simpler than more recent cognitive appraisal theories and so will serve as a good introduction. Similar models are offered by Roseman, Antoniou, and Jose [], Roseman [], Lazarus [], and Scherer [, ]. The basic theoretical framework is the same for all of the cognitive appraisal theories. The main differences concern the exact appraisals that are used in this process.

Roseman's model, which is described in Table 3, has five appraisal components that can produce 14 discrete emotions. The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state appetitive, aversive , situational state motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent , probability certain, uncertain, unknown , power strong, weak , and agency self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused.

The basic idea is that when a stimulus is encountered it is appraised along these five dimensions. Each appraisal component is assigned one of its possible values, and together these values determine which emotion response will be generated.

The different appraisal components in Roseman's theory are motivational state, situational state, probability, power, and agency. The arrows point to the different values that each appraisal component can take. Each emotion type takes the values that its placement in the chart indicates. When the emotion is placed such that it lines up with more than one value for an appraisal component e.

Adapted from Roseman , p. For example, for joy, the situational state must be appraised as motive-consistent, the motivational state as appetitive, agency must be circumstance-caused, probability must be certain, and power can be either weak or strong.

Notice also that the different emotions all use the same appraisal components, and many emotions take the same values for several of the components. For example, in Roseman's model, anger and regret take the same values for all of the appraisals except for the agency component; for that appraisal, regret takes the value self-caused and anger takes other-caused.

Just like the judgment theorists, Roseman and the other appraisal theorists say that these appraisals do not have to be deliberate, or even something of which the individual is consciously aware. To illustrate this, consider someone accidentally spilling a glass of water on you versus intentionally throwing the glass of water on you. According to Roseman's theory, in the first case, the agency appraisal would most likely be circumstance-caused.

In the latter case, it would be other-caused. As a result, different emotions would be elicited. Most people have had an experience like this and can see that determining these values would not take any conscious effort. The values are set outside of conscious awareness. Unlike some of the judgment theorists, all of the cognitive appraisal theorists agree that the appraisals are followed by a bodily response, which is properly consider part of the emotion process.

Roseman suggests that once the appraisals have been made, a response that has the following parts is set in motion: Non-cognitive theories are those that defend the claim that judgments or appraisals are not part of the emotion process. Hence, the disagreement between the cognitive and the non-cognitive positions primarily entails the early part of the emotion process.

The concern is what intervenes between the perception of a stimulus and the emotion response. The non-cognitive position is that the emotion response directly follows the perception of a relevant stimulus. Thus, instead of any sort of evaluation or judgment about the stimulus, the early part of the emotion process is thought to be reflex-like. The non-cognitive theories are in many ways a development of the folk psychological view of emotion.

This is the idea that emotions are separate from the rational or cognitive operations of the mind: The non-cognitive position has also been motivated by skepticism about the cognitive theories. The non-cognitive theorists deny that propositional attitudes and the conceptual knowledge that they require for example, anger is the judgment that I have been wronged are necessary for emotions.

Advocates of the non-cognitive position stress that a theory of emotion should apply to infants and non-human animals, which presumably do not have the cognitive capabilities that are described in the judgment theories or the cognitive appraisal theories. With respect to the non-cognitive theories themselves, there are two different approaches.

The first develops an explanation of the non-cognitive process, but claims that only some emotions are non-cognitive. The second approach describes the non-cognitive process in a very similar way, but defends the idea that all emotions are non-cognitive.

Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process , and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman's account into his own theory of the emotions This section will review the way in which Ekman and Griffiths describe the non-cognitive process. The next section will examine a theory that holds that all emotions are non-cognitive, a position that Ekman and Griffiths do not defend.

Ekman's model is composed of two mechanisms that directly interface with each other: Griffiths adopts a slightly different way of describing the model; he treats Ekman's two mechanisms as a single system, which he calls the affect program.

Griffiths also suggests that there is a separate affect program for each of several emotions: As noted in section one, Griffiths identifies this class of emotions, the affect programs, historically. There must be an appraiser mechanism which selectively attends to those stimuli external or internal which are the occasion for activating the affect programme Since the interval between stimulus and emotional response is sometimes extraordinarily short, the appraisal mechanism must be capable of operating with great speed.

Often the appraisal is not only quick but it happens without awareness, so I must postulate that the appraisal mechanism is able to operate automatically. It must be constructed so that it quickly attends to some stimuli, determining not only that they pertain to emotion, but to which emotion, and then activating the appropriate part of the affect programme , p.

The automatic appraisal mechanism is able to detect certain stimuli, which Ekman calls elicitors. Elicitors can vary by culture, as well as from individual to individual. On a more general level, however, there are similarities among the elicitors for each emotion. These are some of the examples that Ekman offers:. Disgust elicitors share the characteristic of being noxious rather than painful; One of the common characteristics of some of the elicitors of happiness is release from accumulated pressure, tension, discomfort, etc.

Loss of something to which one is intimately attached might be a common characteristic of sadness elicitors. Interference with ongoing activity might be characteristic of some anger elicitors , pp.

Related to Ekman's notion of an elicitor, Griffiths suggests that this system includes a "biased learning mechanism," which allows it to easily learn some things, but makes it difficult for it to learn others. For example, it is easier for humans to acquire a fear of snakes than a fear flowers Griffiths, , pp.

Furthermore, this system "would have some form of memory, storing information about classes of stimuli previously assessed as meriting emotional response" , p. The second mechanism that Ekman describes, what he calls the affect programme, governs the various elements of the emotion response: According to Ekman, this is a mechanism that "stores the patterns for these complex organized responses, and which when set off directs their occurrence" , p. Griffiths also points out that the affect programs recall that, in Griffiths' parlance, affect program refers to the whole system have several of the features that Fodor identified for modular processes.

In particular, when the appropriate stimulus is presented to the system the triggering of the response is mandatory, meaning that once it begins it cannot be interfered with or stopped.

The affect programs are also encapsulated, or cut off from other mental processes , pp. Ekman appears to have been aware of the modular nature of this system when he wrote, "The difficulty experienced when trying to interfere with the operation of the affect programme, the speed of its operation, its capability to initiate responses that are hard to halt voluntarily, is what is meant by out-of-control quality to the subjective experiences of some emotions" , p.

Ekman and Griffiths both believe that this system accounts for a significant number of the emotions that humans experience, but neither think that it describes all emotions. Ekman says that the automatic appraisal mechanism is one kind of appraisal mechanism, but he also believes that cognitive appraisals are sometimes utilized. Griffiths defends the view that the vernacular term emotion does not pick out a single psychological class.

In addition to the affect program emotions, he suggests some emotions are cognitively mediated and some are socially constructed. An alternative view is that the emotion process is always a non-cognitive one. That is, a system like the one described by Ekman and Griffiths accounts for all occurrences of emotion. This position is defended by Jenefer Robinson , , It is also similar to the theories developed by William James and, more recently, Jesse Prinz a , which are discussed in the next section.

See Zajonc , for another important defense of the non-cognitive position. In her "exclusively non-cognitive" theory, Robinson claims that any cognitive processes that occur in an emotion-causing situation are in addition to the core process, which is non-cognitive. She acknowledges that in some cases, an emotion might be caused by cognitive activity, but this is explained as cognitive activity that precedes the non-cognitive emotion process.

For example, sometimes an individual's fear is in response to cognitively complex information such as the value of one's investments suddenly dropping. In this case, a cognitive process will determine that the current situation is dangerous, and then what Robinson calls an affective appraisal will be made of this specific information and a fear response will be triggered. As Robinson describes this part of her theory, "My suggestion is that there is a set of inbuilt affective appraisal mechanisms, which in more primitive species and in neonates are automatically attuned to particular stimuli, but which, as human beings learn and develop, can also take as input more complex stimuli, including complex 'judgments' or thoughts" , p.

This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. This aspect of her theory can also be used to explain how an individual can be cognitively aware that he or she has been unjustly treated, or been unexpectedly rewarded, but not experience any emotion for example, anger, or sadness, or happiness —a situation which does seem to occur sometimes.

For example, the cognitive appraisal may indicate that the individual has been unjustly treated, but the affective appraisal will not evaluate this as worthy of an emotion response. Robinson also suggests that the non-cognitive process may be followed by cognitive activity that labels an emotion response in ways that reflect the individual's thoughts and beliefs.

The non-cognitive process might generate an anger response, but then subsequent cognitive monitoring of the response and the situation causes the emotion to be labeled as jealousy.

Thus, the individual will take him or herself to be experiencing jealousy, even though the actual emotion process was the one specific to anger , The theories discussed in this section have varied in the importance that they place on the bodily changes that typically during the emotion process.

The judgment theorist Martha Nussbaum is dismissive of the bodily changes, whereas the cognitive appraisal theorists that is, the psychologists hold that the bodily response is a legitimate part of the process and has to be included in any complete description of the emotions. Meanwhile, all of the non-cognitive theorists agree that bodily changes are part of the emotion process.

However, the cognitive theories all maintain that it is the cognitive activity that determines the specific emotion that is produced that is, sadness, anger, fear, and so forth. Ekman's automatic appraisal mechanism and Robinson's affective appraisals are both supposed to determine which emotion is generated.

The further question is whether there is a unique set of bodily changes for each emotion. The cognitive appraisal theorist Klaus Scherer claims that each appraisal component directs specific bodily changes, and so his answer to this question is affirmative ; Griffiths says that is likely that each affect program emotion has a unique bodily response profile , pp. Nevertheless, although answering this question is important for a complete understanding of the emotions, it does not greatly affect the theories mentioned here, which are largely based on what occurs in the early part of the emotion process.

The somatic feedback theorists differ from the cognitive and non-cognitive positions by claiming that the bodily responses are unique for each emotion and that it is in virtue of the unique patterns of somatic activity that the emotions are differentiated. Thus, according to these theories, there is one set of bodily changes for sadness, one set for anger, one for happiness, and so on. In any case, it is the feedback that the mind or brain gets from the body that makes the event an emotion.

William James was the first to develop a somatic feedback theory, and recently James' model has been revived and expanded by Antonio Damasio , and Jesse Prinz a, b. Somatic feedback theories suggest that once the bodily response has been generated that is, a change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, and so forth , the mind registers these bodily activities, and this mental state the one caused by the bodily changes is the emotion.

James describes it this way: Note that James' theory overlaps with the non-cognitive theories insofar as James suggests that when the stimulus is perceived, a bodily response is triggered automatically or reflexively , p. The installation's government and community organizations to for base functions during non-school hours. MWR Program continues its five-star accredited improve public relations and ensure the Navy In October , construction began on a program -- the highest possible rating -- while is recognized as a good steward of public funds new base air traffic control tower.

The tower the Fleet and Family Support Center was recog- and an involved member of the local commu- now gives air traffic controllers a better view of nized by Commander Navy Installations Com- nity.

With the oldest and largest state charter the airfield, provides more room for the train- mand for numerous program strengths. Growth aboard including a base-wide drainage improvement services to more than K-8 students.

On a daily facilities. Mishap-free basis, NAS JRB New Orleans is a constant cen- flight hours numbered ter of activity for air operations, ground opera- more than 18, as the tions and a variety of family support services. The center also provides a wide range of cians work hard to ensure that they perform at base operating and waterfront logistics sup- percent. New Orleans is a large main- port. New to keep the aircraft it supports up and flying.

ASD New Orleans understands improved efficiency and reduced costs. New allow Navy and Marine Corps air forces to meet Navy transformed naval aviation maintenance Orleans has met percent of its commit- their mission. The unit processed 34, maintenance On Aug. The implementation of FRCs is maintenance support, stellar customer service, is to deliver sustained global logistics capa- one of the Navy's strategies to support the war- emergency response or Lean Six Sigma initia- bilities to the Navy and Joint Warfighter.

NALO and painting of SE containers, or "Cans" , pre- is an Echelon IV aviation major command cision measurement equipment repair and field with a staff of more than 50 personnel.

NALO validates, prioritizes and schedules worldwide unique Navy fleet-essential airlift missions support- ing combatant commander, fleet response and DOD requirements. Originally sissippi, Alabama, Georgia and South Carolina. Command MSC Ship Inspection Branch New calibration services for depot-reworked avi- The command's primary mission is to gen- Orleans perform ship material condition and ation support equipment and oxygen servic- erate mobilization readiness by providing operational readiness inspections for MSC ves- ing equipment cleaning and calibration.

The administrative services, training support and sels worldwide. The command staff includes three N, headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia. Navy Munitions Command Det. It is responsible for the safe and secure storage of ordnance in 10 weapons magazines. That deployment marked a Naval Reserve first. The award represented more than men and women for active-duty and Reserve 5, hours of accident-free flying that year.

Trubee Davison Award as the "Best Tailhook tomorrow's challenges. Affectionately known Squadron in the Naval Reserves. The operational tempo increased in Alabama and the Florida Panhandle.

VA's selection as the Orleans, its team of professional Sailors is also winner of the CNO Safety Award for was charged with being ambassadors of good will a proud end to a busy year.

VA officially redesignated control coordinator. For more information, call or The squadron in support of fleet requirements. On May 8, River Rattler aircraft took again earned the F. Trubee Davison Award in In , VFA surpassed 29 years and to the skies over Southern Louisiana exactly and the next year earned the Battle "E" 95, Class "A" mishap-free flight hours while years from the day naval aviation was born.

In addition to participating in the Centennial By , the squadron had racked up The Rattlers flew sorties and hours of Naval Aviation, the River Rattlers conducted 20 years and nearly 70, flight hours of Class in support of the global war on terrorism, pro- eight detachments in support of fleet training. In , the squad- viding critical air-to-ground training sorties for The year culminated in a highly suc- ron maintained adversary support with five students going through the Joint Terminal Air cessful detachment in which the squadron detachments and a historic "Around the Horn" Controller course.

As a result of VFA's spectacular River Rattlers set sail to offer fleet protection posite training unit exercises, one Joint Task performance over the course of the year, the and training as Nimitz transited around South Force Exercise and a detachment supporting command was awarded the Battle "E," America, changing its homeport from Norfolk, VFA's air-to-air training, earning them Golden Wrench and Commander, Naval Air Virginia, to San Diego.

This putting VFA back on the cutting edge of war- mishap. In doing so, the River Rattlers cele- "re-blue" culminated in an entire squadron fighting capabilities. Virginia, in the late summer. The year included great challenges par- ticipation in the first joint Red Flag exercise in March made Navy Reserve history. Flying more than sorties, the squadron delivered more than , pounds of live ordnance and pro- vided counter-air protection and interdiction during a complete war scenario.

In , they once more provided professional adversary support on a worldwide stage and were again awarded the Battle "E. During a strike detachment support- ing Exercise Northern Edge, the squadron http: For aircrews, ron to fly the Lockheed CT "Hercules.

These The squadron operates four CT aircraft "Citizen Sailors" come from all walks of life with a normal maximum takeoff weight of including educators, attorneys, doctors, busi- , pounds, able to carry any combina- nessmen and women, airline pilots, engineers, tion of up to 92 passengers and 40, pounds police officers, college students, farmers and of palletized cargo, heavy trucks or light carpenters.

All of these elements combine armored vehicles. Due to the diverse capabili- smoothly into a team with tremendous ability, ties, VR's mission includes everything from experience and motivation.

History Nicknamed The Revelers, the squadron bears Commissioned June 1, , the squadron the colors purple, green and gold, symbolic of received its first aircraft "" in August of that the official colors of Mardi Gras. Unique Fleet Essential Airlift aircraft and to VR is actually the rebirth of a previous provide responsive, flexible and rapidly deploy- squadron of the same designation that was able air logistics support required to maintain also stationed aboard NAS JRB New Orleans.

Also transport aircraft and was decommissioned the squadron provides peacetime air logistics in the early s when the Navy introduced support for all Navy commands and quality the C-9 Skytrain.

The members of VR log training for all fleet logistics support squad- upward of 2, flight hours annually support- The River Rattlers continue to set the bar ron personnel. Year-round, highly skilled and ing worldwide hence "World Famous" logis- high, proving that the experience and exper- motivated aircrews, maintenance and support tics mission. Any given year VR provides tise resident in this Naval Reserve squadron personnel provide worldwide logistics support six to eight months of air logistics detachment rival those of any unit, anywhere, anytime.

Command and Central Command; in fiscal The Revelers are comprised of both active- year , the squadron supported 2,, duty and Reserve personnel working together pounds of cargo and 1, passengers while to meet the squadron's mission. There are more conducting missions and total lifts than highly trained and motivated aircrew, worldwide. Prosecution of Courts-Martial RLSO SE provides preliminary processing including drafting of charges, review of pre- liminary inquiries and advice regarding the preferral and referral of court-martial charges.

The staff conducts litigation of courts-martial trials, including the preparation and authenti- cation of records of trial, and provides victim and witness assistance as required. Virginia, for assistance. The attorney assigned to this posi- Relationship with Naval ity as appropriate. The distinction is important.

Essen- bers of the armed forces by providing quality referral of charges, is available. Along these tially, RLSO SE is the "law firm" which advises legal services regarding personal civil legal lines, RLSO SE can provide advice and train- and represents the commands and it does not matters to eligible persons and by educating ing to potential SCM officers or provide an represent individuals, whereas NLSO Central eligible persons regarding their personal legal SCM officer in certain instances.

It provides defense military community through a variety of cre- forwarding appeals. It also details judge office provides legal assistance services to cli- investigations training, advice and assistance advocates as counsel for respondents ser- ents eligible to receive services in accordance to investigating officers in preparation of vice members in administrative separation with federal law, applicable regulations and reports and review by the convening authority.

Legal assistance attorneys It provides administrative separation advice Commands in Louisiana that wish to request draft wills, living wills, medical powers of and assistance in all aspect of the administra- detailed defense counsel for service members attorney, and other special and general pow- tion separation process including providing facing courts-martial or detailed counsel for ers of attorney.

They also provide basic advice Recorder in appropriate cases. Their telephone Notary services are also available. To set up an tions, indebtedness complaints, hate crimes number is Each of these geographically given annually to the Air National Guard unit Guard fighter unit of more than 1, men separated units has its own distinct mission.

In addition, the wing received Combat Command and nicknamed the "Bayou with other Reserve Force components in that an "Excellent" rating during its Operational Militia. The wing pro- Readiness Inspection in both and Medical Group and Mission Support Group. The wing's mission is to provide fully staffed Four geographically separated units are also The LA ANG provides its Airmen the oppor- units prepared to accomplish all federal, state attached to the th Fighter Wing: The wing comprises four main functional groups: The group trains and supports aviators to maintain reg- ular flying schedules, to support the alert mis- sion for immediate worldwide deployments and for employment in accordance with war plans.

Maintenance Group To sustain the fast-paced tempo, the wing has a highly dedicated and well-trained cadre of maintenance and support personnel. The maintainers are tasked with on- and off-equipment maintenance of the Eagles, including aircraft servicing, unscheduled maintenance, pre-flights, through flights, basic post-flights and combat turns with live or training ammunition.

In addition, support personnel perform everything from operations, life support and mobility to personnel and administrative functions. Medical Group advocate general, safety, financial management, Mission Support Group The th Medical Group provides the fol- visual information and public affairs.

The direc- With more than military and civilian lowing medical services: This includes providing medical The th Fighter Wing supports national arated units at their sites throughout the state. Expeditionary Force participating in real- gency readiness forces that deploy worldwide. The mission also includes information-sharing with emerging countries on the importance of homeland defense. Community Role The th Fighter Wing participates year- round in local, state and national programs that add value to local towns, the state and nation.

The men and women who make up the th Fighter Wing will continue to defend the nation while transforming into the necessary force for the future. The wing will do this in both expeditionary and homeland defense mis- sions while continuing to uphold its military culture and connections to the community.

The men and women of the th Fighter Wing serve proudly in the far reaches of the globe -- and at home -- and do so with distinction. B provided detachment support for HML from Jan.

C and Operation Desert Storm. C, Aircraft Group 42, Det. C on Marine Corps reserve squadron, is composed front Airport under the name Marine Air of active-duty, active Reserve and selected June 20, It was orig- Marine Fighter Squadron C actively supports Marine Wing. C has To accomplish its assigned mission, the unit up in B in Octo- Det. C activated was replaced in with the UCW, which and deployed to Camp Pendleton, California, brings enhanced capabilities in terms of range, in support of units deployed to OIF.

A activated in survivability. A, along with operations in Throughout , the unit supported multi- The squadron currently deploys a UCW ple training events across the region. C and its component detach- This ensures the squadron is trained and ready ments continue to train to ensure they are to complete its wartime mission in support of ready to meet future commitments in the the Marine Air Ground Task Force or Marine global war on terrorism.

Corps Service Component Commander. Two weeks each day for the armed forces. From to Orleans MEPS is to process individuals for The th Theater Sustainment Command , the th remained in a Reserve status enlistment or induction into the armed ser- TSC is a multifunctional unit that performs and experienced extensive growth and several vices, based on DOD-approved peacetime and a dual mission. The first is mission command changes in unit designation. Three primary areas of assigned forces in order to provide the U.

In December , the unit was redesignated are considered in determining an applicant's Army Reserve with trained and ready individu- as the th Support Brigade under the Army qualifications for enlistment: The second mission renamed the th Corps Support Command ground evaluation screening.

The workforce is made up ater Support Command. It is commanded ment Command and regionally aligned to by a major general two-star with six briga- U. Southern Command in September It was provided earthquake relief in Haiti as part of then converted, reorganized and redesignated Operation Unified Response in and pro- the 12th Port Headquarters and Headquarters vided assistance to the East Coast in the wake Company, and assigned to the Transportation of Hurricane Sandy in As the Army trans- Corps in November After an inactivation forms, the th TSC will continue to lead the in , the unit was redesignated Headquarters way by integrating emerging technology with and Headquarters Company, th Transporta- the best-trained and ready Soldiers to provide tion Major Port, and assigned to the Organized sustainment solutions to support any mission.

Service and state and local law enforcement. Airframes flown by the Coast to thousands of offshore oil platforms in the interoperability and including the first FBI Guard in New Orleans have included the Gulf of Mexico.

To meet these of vertical delivery hoist delivery of USCG to fly the HHA Dolphin in operational demanding missions, the air station maintains boarding teams to vessels at sea, a capability missions and again led the fleet in being first two ready crews at all times and annually flies now used frequently with other units through- among Coast Guard Air Stations to upgrade to more than 3, hours.

The Coast Guard, a member of the Department of Homeland Security since , works directly under the direction of the North American Aerospace Defense Command and alongside other federal, state and local agen- cies to ensure the restricted airspace around the capital is secure. Air Station New Orleans not only supports the NCR mission with pilots and aircrew but also supports other National Special Security Events throughout the country that require rapid response capabilities.

Coast Guard helicopters flew more than flight hours and hoisted more than 7, people to safety during both hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The massive fire left people in need of rescue.

Leading the response, New Orleans aircrews worked throughout the night, and together with Coast Guard teams from Mobile, Alabama, and civilian response teams, rescued peo- ple, including 17 who were critically injured.

A majority of the lives saved or assisted during were a result of historic flooding in Baton Rouge, in which Coast Guard Air Station New Orleans supported search and rescue for an area covering more than square miles over a seven-day period. Crews worked in partnership with numerous agencies through unusual conditions to overcome the disaster and evacuate those in need of assistance. Since its establishment in , Air Station New Orleans has saved more than 13, lives and is considered to be the busiest all-helicopter SAR unit in the Coast Guard.

Coast Guard Air Station New Orleans has been awarded 12 Meritorious Unit Commen- dations for its superior performance during rescue operations as well as five Coast Guard Unit Commendations for exceptional opera- tional performance. Laundry facilities are Group Reservations Desk Complimentary business center Hours: Conference and meeting facilities are available upon request.

This For groups of 10 or more, call the group coordinator at All branches of the military are welcomed to cable television with free HBO, 32" flat screen televisions, telephone on-base housing. All active-duty military PCS orders in their entirety. This tool allows the housing depart- mes and flats, NONH boasts two-, three- and and dependency status.

The housing applica- ment to gather information that caters to the four-bedroom units to fit every family size. Once this information is received, the for more information.

Single service members who are on perma- washer, microwave and garbage disposal. The nent change of station PCS orders will reside units include garages and some with balconies. These homes have carports and offer, check on special housing programs or sharing common areas such as bathrooms ample storage.

Incoming residents should who wish to reside on the economy should ans and the French Quarter. For more information on to ask questions. Those members will be provided its website at www. UH does page at: This however have a robust resident advisor pro- The New Orleans Navy Family Housing is critical when tailoring a specific search gram that allows volunteer senior enlisted Welcome Center is in Patrician Management's and expediting a door-to-door move.

Members should read UH. If interested, call Conceived by military ees and their families enjoy their commissary benefit. Authorized patrons personnel, educators and community leaders in , BCA incorporated can purchase groceries at cost plus a five percent surcharge, which covers as a Louisiana nonprofit corporation in January The Louisiana the costs of building new commissaries and modernizing existing ones. In addition to a full lineup of fresh produce, fresh meats, frozen, chilled and dairy items, the store features a full-service deli-bakery, and the meat department can provide specialty cuts to order.

For hours and store events, visit the store's location on the website. Comple- menting the school's rigorous academic pro- gram is a structured, orderly environment, shaped in large measure by a fully integrated character-education program. The mission of BCA is to educate military- dependent children, no matter their back- ground or previous school experience, to fully achieve their personal and academic potential.

It has established and continues to sustain a quality community charter school that fosters an educational environment focused on aca- demic excellence and tailored to the needs of the military-dependent child, specifically providing: The following documentation must be pre- sented at the time of enrollment: DTaP -- diphtheria, tetanus, baked cakes, pastries and breads.

The five-star special education services. All students the base opening, the galley has long-standing are required to present evidence of having pride and dedication to customers and the sup- the appropriate number of vaccine doses. Consult the school nurse for the appropri- Customers can hear the daily menu by calling ate number of doses.

All students 11 and Dependents must be with their sponsor. PCMs are concerned with managing pop- ulation health indicators and ensuring patients receive recommended health exams, and also taking care of patients when they are unwell. If patients require specialty care, then a referral will be generated from their PCM. A behavioral health specialist psychologist is also available through your PCM or by self-referral to eval- uate and treat physical, behavioral and emo- tional health concerns.

All medical care is scheduled by appoint- ment; call , option 1. The Medical Readiness team is the other primary access point for regular medical care. To schedule an appointment, call , option 8. NBHC dental serves all active-duty members and reservists on active-duty orders. After- hours emergencies may call the duty section at , option 6. Call to schedule a dental visit. Selected Reserve providers, includ- and prepares them for transport to outside ref- ans, is one of 10 branch health clinics under the ing flight surgeons, augment the Navy Opera- erence testing centers.

Patients who are in a drill status Monday Health Benefits 20, eligible beneficiaries stationed through- through Friday may bring a copy of their official The managed care department is ready to out the greater New Orleans area. Emergency, muster sheet and be seen for illnesses or injuries assist with enrollment, medical billing issues surgical and hospital care and many other that interfere with performance during the drill and referrals for all of its beneficiaries.

The specialty services are provided through the period. Those activated for fewer than 31 days must health care benefits. The principal means for Hours are from 7: Monday present a copy of their orders upon check-in. The clinic is closed on federal For complete information, visit www.

South, or visit www. Monday, Wednesday and Friday and lization Managers to obtain referral approval etry technician at , option 4. Availability is subject to change without may speak to a corpsman in physical therapy Humana to obtain the referred service in the notice.

No emergency care is available. Hours by dialing , option 3. To contact the managed care department Radiology during working hours 7: The Pharmacy stocks medication via Navy for all basic X-ray needs with state-of-the-art Medicine formulary guidance with input from equipment and cutting-edge technology to Health Promotion Department Naval Hospital Pensacola and based on local better identify problems such as bone spurs, The department provides innovative and evi- requirements -- not all civilian prescription or shin splints and fractures.

The goal is to assist dence-based health promotion programs and other military prescription orders can be filled. Services include counseling a prescription, review the clinic's formulary in For additional Information, including digi- with healthy nutrition, managing high blood advance. A copy is available at the pharmacy, tal copies of exams performed at the lab, call pressure, managing blood sugar, lowering on the Express Scripts website at https: Classes include Tobacco https: Pharmacy hours are 7 a.

Administrative Services vention program for weight management , For refills from the Naval Hospital system, Internal administrative services support the Weight Management includes exercise rec- call 10 days in advance. All requirements of the health care departments ommendations and Sleep Management. Patients must commands can be arranged on a wide variety allow 10 days for medication to be refilled.

Medical Records of health-related subjects by appointment. All health care records for beneficiaries are Call for more information. Physical Therapy maintained on-site by military instruction. The NBHC Belle Chasse physical therapy Navy medicine is hard at work digitizing Behavioral Health department provides outpatient physical ther- every health care encounter into the electronic The goal of the clinic's behavioral health staff apy services to active-duty personnel and their medical record.

Your records should be turned is to provide treatment within the clinic with dependents with musculoskeletal and neu- in when you check in to your command and the staff psychiatrist and licensed counselor. The services include enroll with the Branch Health Clinic, and any If necessary, the clinic will facilitate treatment examination, evaluation, diagnosis, treatment hard-copy medical encounter you receive in and continuation of care by consult entry and plans and prognosis.

Treatment is administered the civilian network should similarly be turned direct contact with TRICARE and civilian pro- through manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, in otherwise it won't exist in the official elec- viders. The clinic also strives to provide men- modalities moist hot packs, cryotherapy, ultra- tronic record.

You may receive a courtesy tal health awareness education to the base in sound, electrical stimulation, iontophoresis, copy of your electronic medical record; call concert with local Fleet and Family Support kinesio taping and traction to decrease pain, ahead for notification and an appointment: Case Management The Case Management office, available for active-duty service members, their spouses and children, provides assistance in coordinating care for routine and catastrophic mental health cases, including network utilization of addic- tion and inpatient services.

Call the case management office at for more information. Optometry NBHC Belle Chasse offers full routine eye exams and contact prescription exams for active-duty members and reservists. Depen- dents are seen on a space-available basis. Active-duty, Reserve and retired members may order eyeglasses. The NAS JRB Credit Union is a full-service Two separate and distinct legal commands financial institution with a full range of finan- provide services to Navy, Marine Corps and Limitations on Legal Assistance cial products including savings and checking Coast Guard commands and personnel in Lou- A legal assistance attorney cannot represent accounts, youth accounts, Visa credit and isiana: It is easy to get involved in a program in your area.

The program has locations available at over 14, fitness centers throughout the country, making it possible to choose from several gym locations. Visit the eligibility page to check to see if your health insurance covers the gym memberships as a benefit.

You can see if the health program is covered by your insurance and, if not, which insurance companies provide coverage.

In addition, check if you can apply for the program under your medicare coverage. Print out a membership card that makes signing up for a program easier and explore your area to find what senior friendly fitness centers are available in your area.

Remaining active is one of the best things Seniors can do to stay healthy. It not only keeps them strong and physically healthy, but it also helps keep their minds sharper and their mood higher. Unfortunately, most health programs are geared toward younger individuals. The senior fitness centers are taking care of that problem. In addition, classes are offered at most senior fitness centers.

These classes vary, but include Zumba, water aerobics, general exercise and more. The classes are conducted at a more relaxed level, enabling senior citizens to enjoy activities that their younger peers enjoy.

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